18 U.S. Code § 3551 - Authorized sentences

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(a) In General.— Except as otherwise specifically provided, a defendant who has been found guilty of an offense described in any Federal statute, including sections 13 and 1153 of this title, other than an Act of Congress applicable exclusively in the District of Columbia or the Uniform Code of Military Justice, shall be sentenced in accordance with the provisions of this chapter so as to achieve the purposes set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 3553 (a)(2) to the extent that they are applicable in light of all the circumstances of the case.
(b) Individuals.— An individual found guilty of an offense shall be sentenced, in accordance with the provisions of section 3553, to—
(1) a term of probation as authorized by subchapter B;
(2) a fine as authorized by subchapter C; or
(3) a term of imprisonment as authorized by subchapter D.
A sentence to pay a fine may be imposed in addition to any other sentence. A sanction authorized by section 3554, 3555, or 3556 may be imposed in addition to the sentence required by this subsection.
(c) Organizations.— An organization found guilty of an offense shall be sentenced, in accordance with the provisions of section 3553, to—
(1) a term of probation as authorized by subchapter B; or
(2) a fine as authorized by subchapter C.
A sentence to pay a fine may be imposed in addition to a sentence to probation. A sanction authorized by section 3554, 3555, or 3556 may be imposed in addition to the sentence required by this subsection.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 212(a)(2),Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1988; amended Pub. L. 101–647, title XVI, § 1602,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4843.)
References in Text

Acts of Congress applicable exclusively in the District of Columbia, referred to in subsec. (a), are classified generally to the District of Columbia Code.
The Uniform Code of Military Justice, referred to in subsec. (a), is classified generally to chapter 47 (§ 801 et seq.) of Title 10, Armed Forces.
Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647inserted “including sections 13 and 1153 of this title,” after “any Federal statute,”.
Effective Date; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 235,Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2031, as amended by Pub. L. 99–217, §§ 2, 4,Dec. 26, 1985, 99 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 99–646, § 35,Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3599; Pub. L. 100–182, § 2,Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1266; Pub. L. 104–232, § 4,Oct. 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 3056, provided that:
“(a)(1) This chapter [chapter II (§§ 211–239) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the first day of the first calendar month beginning 36 months after the date of enactment [Oct. 12, 1984] and shall apply only to offenses committed after the taking effect of this chapter, except that—
“(A) the repeal of chapter 402 of title 18, United States Code, shall take effect on the date of enactment [Oct. 12, 1984];
“(B)(i) chapter 58 of title 28, United States Code, shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1984] or October 1, 1983, whichever occurs later, and the United States Sentencing Commission shall submit the initial sentencing guidelines promulgated under section 994 (a)(1) of title 28 to the Congress within 30 months of the effective date of such chapter 58; and
“(ii) the sentencing guidelines promulgated pursuant to section 994(a)(1) shall not go into effect until—
“(I) the United States Sentencing Commission has submitted the initial set of sentencing guidelines to the Congress pursuant to subparagraph (B)(i), along with a report stating the reasons for the Commission’s recommendations;
“(II) the General Accounting Office [now Government Accountability Office] has undertaken a study of the guidelines, and their potential impact in comparison with the operation of the existing sentencing and parole release system, and has, within one hundred and fifty days of submission of the guidelines, reported to the Congress the results of its study; and
“(III) the day after the Congress has had six months after the date described in subclause (I) in which to examine the guidelines and consider the reports; and
“(IV) section 212 (a)(2) [enacting chapters 227 and 229 of this title and repealing former chapters 227, 229, and 231 of this title] takes effect, in the case of the initial sentencing guidelines so promulgated.
“(2) For the purposes of section 992 (a) of title 28, the terms of the first members of the United States Sentencing Commission shall not begin to run until the sentencing guidelines go into effect pursuant to paragraph (1)(B)(ii).
“(b)(1) The following provisions of law in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act shall remain in effect for five years after the effective date as to an individual who committed an offense or an act of juvenile delinquency before the effective date and as to a term of imprisonment during the period described in subsection (a)(1)(B):
“(A) Chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code.
“(B) Chapter 309 of title 18, United States Code.
“(C) Sections 4251 through 4255 of title 18, United States Code.
“(D) Sections 5041 and 5042 of title 18, United States Code.
“(E) Sections 5017 through 5020 of title 18, United States Code, as to a sentence imposed before the date of enactment [Oct. 12, 1984].
“(F) The maximum term of imprisonment in effect on the effective date for an offense committed before the effective date.
“(G) Any other law relating to a violation of a condition of release or to arrest authority with regard to a person who violates a condition of release.
“[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–232, § 4,Oct. 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 3056.]
“(3) The United States Parole Commission shall set a release date, for an individual who will be in its jurisdiction the day before the expiration of five years after the effective date of this Act, pursuant to section 4206 of title 18, United States Code. A release date set pursuant to this paragraph shall be set early enough to permit consideration of an appeal of the release date, in accordance with Parole Commission procedures, before the expiration of five years following the effective date of this Act.
“(4) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this subsection, all laws in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act pertaining to an individual who is—
“(A) released pursuant to a provision listed in paragraph (1); and
“(B)(i) subject to supervision on the day before the expiration of the five-year period following the effective date of this Act; or
“(ii) released on a date set pursuant to paragraph (3);
including laws pertaining to terms and conditions of release, revocation of release, provision of counsel, and payment of transportation costs, shall remain in effect as to the individual until the expiration of his sentence, except that the district court shall determine, in accord with the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, whether release should be revoked or the conditions of release amended for violation of a condition of release.
“(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 991 of title 28, United States Code, and sections 4351 and 5002 of title 18, United States Code, the Chairman of the United States Parole Commission or his designee shall be a member of the National Institute of Corrections, and the Chairman of the United States Parole Commission shall be a member of the Advisory Corrections Council and a nonvoting member of the United States Sentencing Commission, ex officio, until the expiration of the five-year period following the effective date of this Act. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4351 of title 18, during the five-year period the National Institute of Corrections shall have seventeen members, including seven ex officio members. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 991 of title 28, during the five-year period the United States Sentencing Commission shall consist of nine members, including two ex officio, nonvoting members.”
[Pub. L. 104–232, § 3(b)(2),Oct. 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 3056, provided that: “Effective on the date the plan [alternative plan by Attorney General for transfer of United States Parole Commission’s functions to another entity within Department of Justice pursuant to section 3 ofPub. L. 104–232, set out as a note under section 4201 of this title] takes effect, paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 235(b) of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–473, set out above] (98 Stat. 2032) are repealed.”]
[Pub. L. 113–47, § 2,Oct. 31, 2013, 127 Stat. 572, provided that: “For purposes of section 235(b) of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (18 U.S.C. 3551 note; Public Law 98–473; 98 Stat. 2032), as such section relates to chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code, and the United States Parole Commission, each reference in such section to ‘26 years’ or ‘26-year period’ shall be deemed a reference to ‘31 years’ or ‘31-year period’, respectively.”]
[Pub. L. 112–44, § 2,Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 532, provided that: “For purposes of section 235(b) of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (18 U.S.C. 3551 note; Public Law 98–473; 98 Stat. 2032), as such section relates to chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code, and the United States Parole Commission, each reference in such section to ‘24 years’ or ‘24-year period’ shall be deemed a reference to ‘26 years’ or ‘26-year period’, respectively.”]
[Pub. L. 110–312, § 2,Aug. 12, 2008, 122 Stat. 3013, provided that: “For purposes of section 235(b) of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (18 U.S.C. 3551 note; Public Law 98–473; 98 Stat. 2032), as such section relates to chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code, and the United States Parole Commission, each reference in such section to ‘21 years’ or ‘21-year period’ shall be deemed a reference to ‘24 years’ or ‘24-year period’, respectively.”]
[Pub. L. 109–76, § 2,Sept. 29, 2005, 119 Stat. 2035, provided that: “For purposes of section 235(b) of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–473, set out above] (98 Stat. 2032) as such section relates to chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code, and the United States Parole Commission, each reference in such section to ‘eighteen years’ or ‘eighteen-year period’ shall be deemed a reference to ‘21 years’ or ‘21-year period’, respectively.”]
[For purposes of section 235(b) ofPub. L. 98–473, set out above, as it relates to chapter 311 of this title and the Parole Commission, references to “fifteen years” or “fifteen-year period” are deemed to be references to “eighteen years” or “eighteen-year period”, respectively, see section 11017(a) ofPub. L. 107–273, set out as a note under section 4202 of this title.]
[For purposes of section 235(b) ofPub. L. 98–473, set out above, as it relates to chapter 311 of this title and the Parole Commission, references to “ten years” or “ten-year period” are deemed to be references to “fifteen years” or “fifteen-year period”, respectively, see section 2(a) ofPub. L. 104–232, set out as a note under section 4201 of this title.]
[Pub. L. 101–650, title III, § 316,Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5115, provided that: “For the purposes of section 235(b) ofPublic Law 98–473 [set out above] as it relates to chapter 311 of title 18, United States Code, and the United States Parole Commission, each reference in such section to ‘five years’ or a ‘five-year period’ shall be deemed a reference to ‘ten years’ or a ‘ten-year period’, respectively.”]
Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–312, § 1,Aug. 12, 2008, 122 Stat. 3013, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘United States Parole Commission Extension Act of 2008’.”
Short Title of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–76, § 1,Sept. 29, 2005, 119 Stat. 2035, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section and enacting provisions listed in a table relating to sentencing guidelines set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘United States Parole Commission Extension and Sentencing Commission Authority Act of 2005’.”
Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–132, title II, § 201,Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1227, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (§§ 201–211) of title II of Pub. L. 104–132, enacting sections 3613A and 3663A of this title, amending sections 2248, 2259, 2264, 2327, 3013, 3556, 3563, 3572, 3611 to 3613, 3614, 3663, and 3664 of this title and Rule 32 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure set out in the Appendix to this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, section 2248 of this title, and section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the ‘Mandatory Victims Restitution Act of 1996’.”
Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–182, § 1,Dec. 7, 1987, 101 Stat. 1266, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 3006A, 3553, 3561, 3563, 3564, 3583, 3663, 3672, 3742, and 4106 of this title, section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and sections 504 and 1111 of Title 29, Labor, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 3006A and 3553 of this title, rule 35 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, set out in the Appendix to this title, and section 994 of Title 28, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Sentencing Act of 1987’.”
Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–217, § 1,Dec. 26, 1985, 99 Stat. 1728, provided that: “This Act [amending section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Sentencing Reform Amendments Act of 1985’.”
Short Title

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 211,Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1987, provided that: “This chapter [chapter II (§§ 211–239) of title II of Pub. L. 98–473, see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Sentencing Reform Act of 1984’.”
Mandatory Victim Restitution; Promulgation of Regulations by Attorney General

Pub. L. 104–132, title II, § 209,Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1240, provided that: “Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this subtitle [Apr. 24, 1996], the Attorney General shall promulgate guidelines, or amend existing guidelines, to carry out this subtitle [subtitle A (§§ 201–211) of title II of Pub. L. 104–132, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out above] and the amendments made by this subtitle and to ensure that—
“(1) in all plea agreements negotiated by the United States, consideration is given to requesting that the defendant provide full restitution to all victims of all charges contained in the indictment or information, without regard to the counts to which the defendant actually pleaded; and
“(2) orders of restitution made pursuant to the amendments made by this subtitle are enforced to the fullest extent of the law.”
Sentencing of Nonviolent and Nonserious Offenders; Sense of Congress

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 239,Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2039, provided that:
“Since, due to an impending crisis in prison overcrowding, available Federal prison space must be treated as a scarce resource in the sentencing of criminal defendants;
“Since, sentencing decisions should be designed to ensure that prison resources are, first and foremost, reserved for those violent and serious criminal offenders who pose the most dangerous threat to society;
“Since, in cases of nonviolent and nonserious offenders, the interests of society as a whole as well as individual victims of crime can continue to be served through the imposition of alternative sentences, such as restitution and community service;
“Since, in the two years preceding the enactment of sentencing guidelines, Federal sentencing practice should ensure that scarce prison resources are available to house violent and serious criminal offenders by the increased use of restitution, community service, and other alternative sentences in cases of nonviolent and nonserious offenders: Now, therefore, be it
“Declared, That it is the sense of the Senate that in the two years preceding the enactment of the sentencing guidelines, Federal judges, in determining the particular sentence to be imposed, consider—
“(1) the nature and circumstances of the offense and the history and characteristics of the defendant;
“(2) the general appropriateness of imposing a sentence other than imprisonment in cases in which the defendant has not been convicted of a crime of violence or otherwise serious offense; and
“(3) the general appropriateness of imposing a sentence of imprisonment in cases in which the defendant has been convicted of a crime of violence or otherwise serious offense.”

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