18 U.S. Code § 3731 - Appeal by United States

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In a criminal case an appeal by the United States shall lie to a court of appeals from a decision, judgment, or order of a district court dismissing an indictment or information or granting a new trial after verdict or judgment, as to any one or more counts, or any part thereof, except that no appeal shall lie where the double jeopardy clause of the United States Constitution prohibits further prosecution.
An appeal by the United States shall lie to a court of appeals from a decision or order of a district court suppressing or excluding evidence or requiring the return of seized property in a criminal proceeding, not made after the defendant has been put in jeopardy and before the verdict or finding on an indictment or information, if the United States attorney certifies to the district court that the appeal is not taken for purpose of delay and that the evidence is a substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding.
An appeal by the United States shall lie to a court of appeals from a decision or order, entered by a district court of the United States, granting the release of a person charged with or convicted of an offense, or denying a motion for revocation of, or modification of the conditions of, a decision or order granting release.
The appeal in all such cases shall be taken within thirty days after the decision, judgment or order has been rendered and shall be diligently prosecuted.
The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate its purposes.

Source

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 844; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 58,63 Stat. 97; Pub. L. 90–351, title VIII, § 1301,June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 91–644, title III, § 14(a),Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1890; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§ 205, 1206,Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986, 2153; Pub. L. 99–646, § 32,Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3598; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330008(4),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title III, § 3004,Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1805.)
Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 682 (Mar. 2, 1907, ch. 2564, 34 Stat. 1246; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291,36 Stat. 1167; Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, § 1,45 Stat. 54; May 9, 1942, ch. 295, § 1,56 Stat. 271).
The word “dismissing” was substituted for “sustaining a motion to dismiss” in two places for conciseness and clarity, there being no difference in effect of a decision of dismissal whether made on motion or by the court sua sponte.
Minor changes were made to conform to Rule 12 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. The final sentence authorizing promulgation of rules is omitted as redundant.
1949 Act
This section [section 58] corrects a typographical error in the second paragraph of section 3731 of title 18, U.S.C., and conforms the language of the fifth, tenth, and eleventh paragraphs of such section 3731 with the changed nomenclature of title 28, U.S.C., Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. See sections 41, 43, and 451 of the latter title.
Amendments

2002—First par. Pub. L. 107–273inserted “, or any part thereof” after “as to any one or more counts”.
1994—Second par. Pub. L. 103–322substituted “order of a district court” for “order of a district courts”.
1986—Fifth par. Pub. L. 99–646struck out fifth par. which read as follows: “Pending the prosecution and determination of the appeal in the foregoing instances, the defendant shall be released in accordance with chapter 207 of this title.”
1984—First par. Pub. L. 98–473, § 1206, inserted “or granting a new trial after verdict or judgment,” after “indictment or information”.
Third par. Pub. L. 98–473, § 205, inserted third par. relating to appeals from a decision or order, entered by a district court of the United States, granting the release of a person charged with or convicted of an offense, or denying a motion for revocation of, or modification of the conditions of, a decision or order granting release.
1971—First par. Pub. L. 91–644, § 14(a)(1), enacted provision for appeal to a court of appeals from decision, judgment, or order of district court dismissing an indictment or information as to any one or more counts, except that no appeal shall lie where double jeopardy prohibits further prosecution.
Second par. Pub. L. 91–644, § 14(a)(1), enacted provision for appeal to a court of appeals from decision or order of district court suppressing or excluding evidence or requiring the return of seized property in a criminal proceeding, not made after the defendant has been put in jeopardy and before the verdict or finding on an indictment or information, if the United States attorney certifies to the district court that the appeal is not taken for purpose of delay and that the evidence is a substantial proof of a fact material in the proceeding.
Such first and second pars. superseded former first eight pars. Pars. one through four had provided for appeal from district courts to Supreme Court from decision or judgment setting aside, or dismissing any indictment or information, or any count thereof and from decision arresting judgment of conviction for insufficiency of indictment or information, where such decision or judgment was based upon invalidity or construction of the statute upon which the indictment or information was founded and for an appeal from decision or judgment sustaining a motion in bar, where defendant had not been put in jeopardy. Pars. five through eight provided for appeal from district courts to a court of appeals where there were no provisions for direct appeal to Supreme Court from decision or judgment setting aside, or dismissing any indictment or information, or any count thereof and from decision arresting a judgment of conviction, and from an order, granting a motion for return of seized property or a motion to suppress evidence, made before trial of a person charged with violation of a Federal law, if the United States attorney certified to the judge who granted the motion that the appeal was not taken for purpose of delay and that the evidence was a substantial proof of the charge pending against the defendant.
Third par. Pub. L. 91–644, § 14(a)(2), authorized within third par., formerly ninth, an appeal within thirty days after order has been rendered.
Fourth par. Pub. L. 91–644, § 14(a), in revising the provisions, had the effect of designating former tenth par. as fourth par.
Fifth par. Pub. L. 91–644, § 14(a)(3), substituted as a fifth par. provision for liberal construction of this section for prior eleventh par. provision respecting remand of case by Supreme Court to court of appeals that should have been taken to such court and treatment of the court’s jurisdiction to hear and determine the case as if the appeal were so taken in the first instance and for prior twelfth par. provision respecting certification of case to Supreme Court that should have been taken directly to such Court and treatment of the Court’s jurisdiction to hear and determine the case as if the appeal were taken directly to such Court.
1968—Pub. L. 90–351inserted eighth par. providing for an appeal by the United States from decisions sustaining motions to suppress evidence and substituted in tenth par. “defendant shall be released in accordance with chapter 207 of this title” for “defendant shall be admitted to bail on his own recognizance”, respectively.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, substituted “invalidity” for “validity” after “upon the” in second par., and conformed language of fifth, tenth, and eleventh pars. to the changed nomenclature of the courts.
Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–644, title III, § 14(b),Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1890, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply with respect to any criminal case begun in any district court before the effective date of this section [Jan. 2, 1971].”

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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