18 U.S. Code § 42 - Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles; permits, specimens for museums; regulations

(a)
(1) The importation into the United States, any territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, or any shipment between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, of the mongoose of the species Herpestes auropunctatus; of the species of so-called “flying foxes” or fruit bats of the genus Pteropus; of the zebra mussel of the species Dreissena polymorpha; of the bighead carp of the species Hypophthalmichthys nobilis; and such other species of wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, brown tree snakes, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe by regulation to be injurious to human beings, to the interests of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, or to wildlife or the wildlife resources of the United States, is hereby prohibited. All such prohibited mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, and reptiles, and the eggs or offspring therefrom, shall be promptly exported or destroyed at the expense of the importer or consignee. Nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal or modify any provision of the Public Health Service Act or Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Also, this section shall not authorize any action with respect to the importation of any plant pest as defined in the Federal Plant Pest Act, [1] insofar as such importation is subject to regulation under that Act.
(2) As used in this subsection, the term “wild” relates to any creatures that, whether or not raised in captivity, normally are found in a wild state; and the terms “wildlife” and “wildlife resources” include those resources that comprise wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), and all other classes of wild creatures whatsoever, and all types of aquatic and land vegetation upon which such wildlife resources are dependent.
(3) Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Secretary of the Interior, when he finds that there has been a proper showing of responsibility and continued protection of the public interest and health, shall permit the importation for zoological, educational, medical, and scientific purposes of any mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia, and reptiles, or the offspring or eggs thereof, where such importation would be prohibited otherwise by or pursuant to this Act, and this Act shall not restrict importations by Federal agencies for their own use.
(4) Nothing in this subsection shall restrict the importation of dead natural-history specimens for museums or for scientific collections, or the importation of domesticated canaries, parrots (including all other species of psittacine birds), or such other cage birds as the Secretary of the Interior may designate.
(5) The Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of the Interior shall enforce the provisions of this subsection, including any regulations issued hereunder, and, if requested by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the Treasury may require the furnishing of an appropriate bond when desirable to insure compliance with such provisions.
(b) Whoever violates this section, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.
(c) The Secretary of the Interior within one hundred and eighty days of the enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 shall prescribe such requirements and issue such permits as he may deem necessary for the transportation of wild animals and birds under humane and healthful conditions, and it shall be unlawful for any person, including any importer, knowingly to cause or permit any wild animal or bird to be transported to the United States, or any Territory or district thereof, under inhumane or unhealthful conditions or in violation of such requirements. In any criminal prosecution for violation of this subsection and in any administrative proceeding for the suspension of the issuance of further permits—
(1) the condition of any vessel or conveyance, or the enclosures in which wild animals or birds are confined therein, upon its arrival in the United States, or any Territory or district thereof, shall constitute relevant evidence in determining whether the provisions of this subsection have been violated; and
(2) the presence in such vessel or conveyance at such time of a substantial ratio of dead, crippled, diseased, or starving wild animals or birds shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the violation of the provisions of this subsection.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 2,63 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 86–702, § 1,Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 97–79, § 9(d),Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 101–646, title I, § 1208,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4772; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, § 1013(e),Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(G),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104–332, § 2(h)(1),Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4091; Pub. L. 111–307, § 2,Dec. 14, 2010, 124 Stat. 3282.)
Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 391, 394 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§ 241, 244,35 Stat. 1137, 1138; June 15, 1935, ch. 261, title II, § 201,49 Stat. 381; Reorg. Plan No. II, § 4(f),4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1433).
This section consolidates the provisions of sections 391 and 394 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as subsections (a) and (b), respectively.
In subsection (a) the words “Territory or District thereof” were omitted as unnecessary in view of the definition of the United States in section 5 of this title.
In subsection (b) the words “upon conviction thereof”, were omitted as surplusage because punishment can only be imposed after conviction.
The amount of the fine was reduced from $1,000 to $500, thus making the violation a petty offense as defined in section 1 of this title. (See also section 41 of this title which provides a similar punishment.)
Minor verbal changes were also made.
1949 Act
This section [section 2] incorporates in section 42 of title 18, U.S.C., with slight changes in phraseology, the provisions of act of June 29, 1948 (ch. 716, 62 Stat. 1096), which became law subsequent to the enactment of the revision of title 18.
References in Text

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§ 201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of Title 42 and Tables.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§ 301 et seq.) of Title 21, Foods and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of Title 21 and Tables.
The Federal Plant Pest Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 85–36, title I, May 23, 1957, 71 Stat. 31, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 7B (§ 150aa et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, § 438(a)(2),June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 454. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), probably refers to Pub. L. 86–702, which amended this section and section 43 of this title.
The enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, referred to in subsec. (c), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–79, which was approved Nov. 16, 1981.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–307inserted “of the bighead carp of the species Hypophthalmichthys nobilis;” after “Dreissena polymorpha;”.
1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–332made technical amendment to Pub. L. 101–646, § 1208. See 1990 Amendment note below.
1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.
1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–237inserted “brown tree snakes,” after “reptiles,” in first sentence.
1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–646, as amended by Pub. L. 104–332, inserted “of the zebra mussel of the species Dreissena polymorpha;” after “Pteropus;”.
1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–79substituted “Secretary of the Interior within one hundred and eighty days of the enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.
1960—Pub. L. 86–702substituted “Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia and reptiles; permits; specimens for museums; regulations” for “Importation of injurious animals and birds; permits; specimens for museums” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 86–702designated first sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (1), prohibited importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or any possession of the United States and shipments between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, described the mongoose and flying foxes by their scientific names, extended the provisions prohibiting importation or shipment to include wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or their eggs or offspring, empowered the Secretary to prohibit importation or shipment if injurious to human beings, forestry, or to wildlife or wildlife resources, required prompt exportation or destruction at the expense of the importer or consignee, provided that this section shall not be construed to repeal or modify any provision of the Public Health Service Act or Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and that it shall not authorize any action with respect to the importation of plant pests, and deleted provisions which required destruction of prohibited birds and animals or their return at the expense of the owner, and which prohibited the importation of the English sparrow and the starling.
Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 86–702added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–702designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (4), limited importation of natural-history specimens to dead ones, and included all species of psittacine birds.
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 86–702designated third sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (5), authorized enforcement by the Secretary of the Interior, and permitted the Secretary of the Treasury, if requested by the Secretary of the Interior, to require the furnishing of a bond.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–702included violations of regulations.
1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, made section applicable to any Territory or district thereof as well as to the United States, and changed phraseology.
Subsec. (b). Act May 24, 1949, reenacted subsec. (b) without change.
Subsec. (c). Act May 24, 1949, added subsec. (c).
Invasive Species

For provisions relating to restrictions on the introduction of invasive species into natural ecosystems of the United States, see Ex. Ord. No. 13112, Feb. 3, 1999, 64 F.R. 6183, set out as a note under section 4321 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

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19 CFR - Customs Duties

19 CFR Part 12 - SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE

50 CFR - Wildlife and Fisheries

50 CFR Part 10 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

50 CFR Part 11 - CIVIL PROCEDURES

50 CFR Part 13 - GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES

50 CFR Part 14 - IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE

50 CFR Part 16 - INJURIOUS WILDLIFE

 

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