(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 2,63 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 86–702, § 1,Sept. 2, 1960, 74 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 97–79, § 9(d),Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079; Pub. L. 101–646, title I, § 1208,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4772; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, § 1013(e),Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1901; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(G),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 104–332, § 2(h)(1),Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4091; Pub. L. 111–307, § 2,Dec. 14, 2010, 124 Stat. 3282.)
Historical and Revision Notes
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 391,
394 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§ 241,
,35 Stat. 1137
, 1138; June 15, 1935, ch. 261, title II, § 201,49 Stat. 381
; Reorg. Plan No. II, § 4(f),4
, 53 Stat. 1433
This section consolidates the provisions of sections
394 of title
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as subsections (a) and (b), respectively.
In subsection (a) the words “Territory or District thereof” were omitted as unnecessary in view of the definition of the United States in section
of this title.
In subsection (b) the words “upon conviction thereof”, were omitted as surplusage because punishment can only be imposed after conviction.
The amount of the fine was reduced from $1,000 to $500, thus making the violation a petty offense as defined in section
of this title. (See also section
of this title which provides a similar punishment.)
Minor verbal changes were also made.
This section [section
] incorporates in section
, U.S.C., with slight changes in phraseology, the provisions of act of June 29, 1948 (ch. 716, 62 Stat. 1096
), which became law subsequent to the enactment of the revision of title 18.
References in Text
The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682
, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§ 201 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040
, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§ 301 et seq.) of Title 21, Foods and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section
The Federal Plant Pest Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 85–36
, title I, May 23, 1957, 71 Stat. 31
, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 7B (§ 150aa et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 106–224
, title IV, § 438(a)(2),June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 454
. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), probably refers to Pub. L. 86–702
, which amended this section and section
of this title.
The enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, referred to in subsec. (c), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–79
, which was approved Nov. 16, 1981.
2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–307
inserted “of the bighead carp of the species Hypophthalmichthys nobilis;” after “Dreissena polymorpha;”.
1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–332
made technical amendment to Pub. L. 101–646
, § 1208. See 1990 Amendment note below.
1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322
substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $500”.
1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–237
inserted “brown tree snakes,” after “reptiles,” in first sentence.
1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–646
, as amended by Pub. L. 104–332
, inserted “of the zebra mussel of the species Dreissena polymorpha;” after “Pteropus;”.
1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–79
substituted “Secretary of the Interior within one hundred and eighty days of the enactment of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981” for “Secretary of the Treasury”.
1960—Pub. L. 86–702
substituted “Importation or shipment of injurious mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibia and reptiles; permits; specimens for museums; regulations” for “Importation of injurious animals and birds; permits; specimens for museums” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 86–702
designated first sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (1), prohibited importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or any possession of the United States and shipments between the continental United States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any possession of the United States, described the mongoose and flying foxes by their scientific names, extended the provisions prohibiting importation or shipment to include wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or their eggs or offspring, empowered the Secretary to prohibit importation or shipment if injurious to human beings, forestry, or to wildlife or wildlife resources, required prompt exportation or destruction at the expense of the importer or consignee, provided that this section shall not be construed to repeal or modify any provision of the Public Health Service Act or Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and that it shall not authorize any action with respect to the importation of plant pests, and deleted provisions which required destruction of prohibited birds and animals or their return at the expense of the owner, and which prohibited the importation of the English sparrow and the starling.
Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 86–702
added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 86–702
designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (4), limited importation of natural-history specimens to dead ones, and included all species of psittacine birds.
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 86–702
designated third sentence of subsec. (a) as par. (5), authorized enforcement by the Secretary of the Interior, and permitted the Secretary of the Treasury, if requested by the Secretary of the Interior, to require the furnishing of a bond.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–702
included violations of regulations.
1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, made section applicable to any Territory or district thereof as well as to the United States, and changed phraseology.
Subsec. (b). Act May 24, 1949, reenacted subsec. (b) without change.
Subsec. (c). Act May 24, 1949, added subsec. (c).
For provisions relating to restrictions on the introduction of invasive species into natural ecosystems of the United States, see Ex. Ord. No. 13112, Feb. 3, 1999, 64
, set out as a note under section
, The Public Health and Welfare.