18 U.S. Code § 435 - Contracts in excess of specific appropriation

Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States, knowingly contracts for the erection, repair, or furnishing of any public building, or for any public improvement, to pay a larger amount than the specific sum appropriated for such purpose, shall be fined under this title  [1] or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

[1]  See 1994 Amendment note below.


(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(K),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 184 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 98,35 Stat. 1106).
Words “or employee” were inserted to remove any ambiguity as to scope of section.
The offense described in this section involves no moral turpitude, and therefore the punishment provisions were reduced from $2,000 to $1,000 and from 2 years to 1 year, so that the stigma of a felony would not attach to an offender. (See classification of felony and misdemeanor in section 1 of this title and note thereunder.)
Mandatory punishment provisions were rephrased in the alternative.
Changes were also made in phraseology.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of this section by substituting “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”, was executed by making the substitution for “fined not more than $1,000”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.