18 U.S. Code § 43 - Force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises
(a) Offense.— Whoever travels in interstate or foreign commerce, or uses or causes to be used the mail or any facility of interstate or foreign commerce—
(2) in connection with such purpose—
(A) intentionally damages or causes the loss of any real or personal property (including animals or records) used by an animal enterprise, or any real or personal property of a person or entity having a connection to, relationship with, or transactions with an animal enterprise;
(B) intentionally places a person in reasonable fear of the death of, or serious bodily injury to that person, a member of the immediate family (as defined in section 115) of that person, or a spouse or intimate partner of that person by a course of conduct involving threats, acts of vandalism, property damage, criminal trespass, harassment, or intimidation; or
shall be punished as provided for in subsection (b).
(b) Penalties.— The punishment for a violation of section  (a) or an attempt or conspiracy to violate subsection (a) shall be—
(1) a fine under this title or imprisonment not  more than 1 year, or both, if the offense does not instill in another the reasonable fear of serious bodily injury or death and—
(2) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, if no bodily injury occurs and—
(3) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both, if—
(4) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both, if—
(c) Restitution.— An order of restitution under section 3663 or 3663A of this title with respect to a violation of this section may also include restitution—
(1) for the reasonable cost of repeating any experimentation that was interrupted or invalidated as a result of the offense;
(d) Definitions.— As used in this section—
(1) the term “animal enterprise” means—
(A) a commercial or academic enterprise that uses or sells animals or animal products for profit, food or fiber production, agriculture, education, research, or testing;
(B) a zoo, aquarium, animal shelter, pet store, breeder, furrier, circus, or rodeo, or other lawful competitive animal event; or
(2) the term “course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of 2 or more acts, evidencing a continuity of purpose;
(3) the term “economic damage”—
(A) means the replacement costs of lost or damaged property or records, the costs of repeating an interrupted or invalidated experiment, the loss of profits, or increased costs, including losses and increased costs resulting from threats, acts or vandalism, property damage, trespass, harassment, or intimidation taken against a person or entity on account of that person’s or entity’s connection to, relationship with, or transactions with the animal enterprise; but
(4) the term “serious bodily injury” means—
(5) the term “substantial bodily injury” means—
(e) Rules of Construction.— Nothing in this section shall be construed—
(1) to prohibit any expressive conduct (including peaceful picketing or other peaceful demonstration) protected from legal prohibition by the First Amendment to the Constitution;
(2) to create new remedies for interference with activities protected by the free speech or free exercise clauses of the First Amendment to the Constitution, regardless of the point of view expressed, or to limit any existing legal remedies for such interference; or
 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.
 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “for”.
Source(Added Pub. L. 102–346, § 2(a),Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 928; amended Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, § 601(r)(3),Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3502; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, § 336,June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 109–374, § 2(a),Nov. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 2652.)
A prior section 43, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 687; Sept. 2, 1960, Pub. L. 86–702, § 2, 74 Stat. 754; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, § 7(a), 83 Stat. 279, related to transportation of wildlife taken in violation of State, national, or foreign law, the receipt of such wildlife, and the making of false records in relation thereto, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–79, § 9(b)(2),Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079. See section 3372 (a) of Title 16, Conservation.
2006—Pub. L. 109–374amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to force, violence, and threats involving animal enterprises for provisions relating to animal enterprise terrorism.
2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–188, § 336(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally, deleting par. (2) reference to intentionally stealing and to requirement that economic damage exceed $10,000, and in concluding provisions substituting reference to punishment under subsec. (b) for reference to fine or imprisonment of not more than one year.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, § 336(b), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting “Penalties” for “Aggravated Offense” in heading and list of penalties for property damage, personal injury and death for reference to serious bodily injury and death in text.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 107–188, § 336(c), added par. (3).
1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–294inserted “or 3663A” after “section 3663” in introductory provisions.
Pub. L. 102–346, § 1,Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 928, provided that: “This Act [enacting this section and provisions set out below] may be cited as the ‘Animal Enterprise Protection Act of 1992’.”
Study of Effect of Terrorism on Certain Animal Enterprises
Section 3 ofPub. L. 102–346directed Attorney General and Secretary of Agriculture to jointly conduct a study on extent and effects of domestic and international terrorism on enterprises using animals for food or fiber production, agriculture, research, or testing, and, not later than 1 year after Aug. 26, 1992, submit a report that describes the results of the study together with any appropriate recommendations and legislation to Congress.
LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.