18 U.S. Code § 478 - Foreign obligations or securities

Whoever, within the United States, with intent to defraud, falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any bond, certificate, obligation, or other security of any foreign government, purporting to be or in imitation of any such security issued under the authority of such foreign government, or any treasury note, bill, or promise to pay, lawfully issued by such foreign government and intended to circulate as money, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.


(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 707; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(K),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, § 375(a),Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 341.)
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 270 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 156,35 Stat. 1117).
Reference to persons causing, procuring, aiding or assisting was omitted as unnecessary as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.
Mandatory punishment provision was rephrased in the alternative.
Changes were also made in phraseology.

2001—Pub. L. 107–56substituted “20 years” for “five years”.
1994—Pub. L. 103–322substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.