19 U.S. Code § 1629 - Inspections and preclearance in foreign countries

(a) In general
When authorized by treaty or executive agreement, the Secretary may station customs officers in foreign countries for the purpose of examining persons and merchandise prior to their arrival in, or subsequent to their exit from, the United States.
(b) Functions and duties
Customs officers stationed in a foreign country under subsection (a) of this section may exercise such functions and perform such duties (including inspections, searches, seizures and arrests) as may be permitted by the treaty, agreement or law of the country in which they are stationed.
(c) Compliance
The Secretary may by regulation require compliance with the customs laws of the United States in a foreign country and, in such a case the customs laws and other civil and criminal laws of the United States relating to the importation or exportation of merchandise, filing of false statements, and the unlawful removal of merchandise from customs custody shall apply in the same manner as if the foreign station is a port of entry or exit within the customs territory of the United States.
(d) Seizures
When authorized by treaty, agreement or foreign law, merchandise which is subject to seizure or forfeiture under United States law may be seized in a foreign country and transported under customs custody to the customs territory to the United States to be proceeded against under the customs law.
(e) Stationing of foreign customs and agriculture inspection officers in the United States
The Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture, may enter into agreements with any foreign country authorizing the stationing in the United States of customs and agriculture inspection officials of that country (if similar privileges are extended by that country to United States officials) for the purpose of ensuring that persons and merchandise going directly to that country from the United States, or that have gone directly from that country to the United States, comply with the customs and other laws of that country governing the importation or exportation of merchandise. Any foreign customs or agriculture inspection official stationed in the United States under this subsection may exercise such functions, perform such duties, and enjoy such privileges and immunities as United States officials may be authorized to perform or are afforded in that foreign country by treaty, agreement, or law.
(f) Application of certain laws
When customs officials of a foreign country are stationed in the United States in accordance with subsection (e) of this section, and if similar provisions are applied to United States officials stationed in that country—
(1) sections 111 and 1114 of title 18 shall apply as if the officials were designated in those sections; and
(2) any person who in any matter before a foreign customs official stationed in the United States knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact, or makes any false, fictitious or fraudulent statements or representations, or makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry, is liable for a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both.
(g) Privileges and immunities
Any person designated to perform the duties of an officer of the Customs Service pursuant to section 1401 (i) of this title shall be entitled to the same privileges and immunities as an officer of the Customs Service with respect to any actions taken by the designated person in the performance of such duties.
(h) Customs procedures and commitments
(1) In general
The Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Trade Representative, and other appropriate Federal officials shall work through appropriate international organizations including the World Customs Organization (WCO), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Maritime Organization, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, to align, to the extent practicable, customs procedures, standards, requirements, and commitments in order to facilitate the efficient flow of international trade.
(2) United States Trade Representative
(A) In general
The United States Trade Representative shall seek commitments in negotiations in the WTO regarding the articles of GATT 1994 that are described in subparagraph (B) that make progress in achieving—
(i) harmonization of import and export data collected by WTO members for customs purposes, to the extent practicable;
(ii) enhanced procedural fairness and transparency with respect to the regulation of imports and exports by WTO members;
(iii) transparent standards for the efficient release of cargo by WTO members, to the extent practicable; and
(iv) the protection of confidential commercial data.
(B) Articles described
The articles of the GATT 1994 described in this subparagraph are the following:
(i) Article V (relating to transit).
(ii) Article VIII (relating to fees and formalities associated with importation and exportation).
(iii) Article X (relating to publication and administration of trade regulations).
(C) GATT 1994
The term “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade annexed to the WTO Agreement.
(3) Customs
The Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner and in consultation with the United States Trade Representative, shall work with the WCO to facilitate the efficient flow of international trade, taking into account existing international agreements and the negotiating objectives of the WTO. The Commissioner shall work to—
(A) harmonize, to the extent practicable, import data collected by WCO members for customs purposes;
(B) automate and harmonize, to the extent practicable, the collection and storage of commercial data by WCO members;
(C) develop, to the extent practicable, transparent standards for the release of cargo by WCO members;
(D) develop and harmonize, to the extent practicable, standards, technologies, and protocols for physical or nonintrusive examinations that will facilitate the efficient flow of international trade; and
(E) ensure the protection of confidential commercial data.
(4) Definition
In this subsection, the term “Commissioner” means the Commissioner responsible for the United States Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security.

Source

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title IV, § 629, as added Pub. L. 99–570, title III, § 3128,Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–89; amended Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title I, § 127(c),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 108–429, title I, § 1561(b), (c),Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2581, 2582; Pub. L. 109–280, title XIV, § 1635(f)(1),Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1171; Pub. L. 109–347, title IV, § 404,Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1928.)
Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–280substituted “ensuring” for “insuring”.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–347added subsec. (h).
2004—Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(c), repealed Pub. L. 108–7, § 127(c). See 2003 Amendment notes below.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(b)(1), inserted “, or subsequent to their exit from,” after “prior to their arrival in”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(b)(2), inserted “or exportation” after “relating to the importation” and “or exit” after “port of entry”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(b)(3), amended heading and text of subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary, may enter into agreements with any foreign country authorizing the stationing in the United States of customs and officials of that country (if similar privileges are extended by that country to United States officials) for the purpose of insuring that persons and merchandise going directly to that country from the United States comply with the customs and other laws of that country governing the importation of merchandise. Any foreign customs official stationed in the United States under this subsection may exercise such functions, and perform such duties, as United States officials may be authorized to perform in that foreign country under reciprocal agreement.”
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(b)(4), added subsec. (g).
2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–7, § 127(c)(1), which directed insertion of “, or subsequent to their exit from,” after “prior to their arrival in” in section 1629 of title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(c).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–7, § 127(c)(2), which directed insertion of “or exportation” after “relating to the importation” and “or exit” after “port of entry” in section 1629 of title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(c).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–7, § 127(c)(3), which directed substitution of “such functions,” for “such functions and” and “by treaty, agreement or law” for “under reciprocal agreement”, and insertion of “and agriculture inspection” after “States of customs” and “foreign customs”, “and the Secretary of Agriculture” after “in coordination with the Secretary”, “or that have gone directly from that country to the United States” after “to that country from the United States”, “or exportation” after “governing the importation”, “, and enjoy such privileges and immunities” after “such duties”, and “or are afforded” after “authorized to perform”, in section 1629 of title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(c).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–7, § 127(c)(4), which directed addition of subsec. (g) tosection 1629 of title 19, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–429, § 1561(c).
Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280applicable with respect to goods entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on or after the 15th day after Aug. 17, 2006, see section 1641 ofPub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 58c of this title.
Authority for the Establishment of Integrated Border Inspection Areas at the United States-Canada Border

Pub. L. 108–429, title I, § 1560,Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2580, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) The increased security and safety concerns that developed in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, need to be addressed.
“(2) One concern that has come to light is the vulnerability of the international bridges and tunnels along the United States borders.
“(3) It is necessary to ensure that potentially dangerous vehicles are inspected prior to crossing these bridges and tunnels; however, currently these vehicles are not inspected until after they have crossed into the United States.
“(4) Establishing Integrated Border Inspection Areas (IBIAs) would address these concerns by inspecting vehicles before they gained access to the infrastructure of international bridges and tunnels joining the United States and Canada.
“(b) Creation of Integrated Border Inspection Areas.—
“(1) In general.—The Commissioner of the Customs Service [Bureau of Customs and Border Protection], in consultation with the Canadian Customs and Revenue Agency (CCRA), shall seek to establish Integrated Border Inspection Areas (IBIAs), such as areas on either side of the United States-Canada border, in which United States Customs officers can inspect vehicles entering the United States from Canada before they enter the United States, or Canadian Customs officers can inspect vehicles entering Canada from the United States before they enter Canada. Such inspections may include, where appropriate, employment of reverse inspection techniques.
“(2) Additional requirement.—The Commissioner of Customs, in consultation with the Administrator of the General Services Administration when appropriate, shall seek to carry out paragraph (1) in a manner that minimizes adverse impacts on the surrounding community.
“(3) Elements of the program.—Using the authority granted by this section and under section 629 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1629], the Commissioner of Customs, in consultation with the Canadian Customs and Revenue Agency, shall seek to—
“(A) locate Integrated Border Inspection Areas in areas with bridges or tunnels with high traffic volume, significant commercial activity, and that have experienced backups and delays since September 11, 2001;
“(B) ensure that United States Customs officers stationed in any such IBIA on the Canadian side of the border are vested with the maximum authority to carry out their duties and enforce United States law;
“(C) ensure that United States Customs officers stationed in any such IBIA on the Canadian side of the border shall possess the same immunity that they would possess if they were stationed in the United States; and
“(D) encourage appropriate officials of the United States to enter into an agreement with Canada permitting Canadian Customs officers stationed in any such IBIA on the United States side of the border to enjoy such immunities as permitted in Canada.”
Creation of Integrated Border Inspection Areas

Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title I, § 127(a),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 440, which related to the creation of integrated border inspection areas on either side of the United States–Canada border, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–429, title I, § 1561(c),Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2582.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


19 CFR - Customs Duties

19 CFR Part 101 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.