19 U.S. Code § 1677b - Normal value

(a) Determination
In determining under this subtitle whether subject merchandise is being, or is likely to be, sold at less than fair value, a fair comparison shall be made between the export price or constructed export price and normal value. In order to achieve a fair comparison with the export price or constructed export price, normal value shall be determined as follows:
(1) Determination of normal value
(A) In general
The normal value of the subject merchandise shall be the price described in subparagraph (B), at a time reasonably corresponding to the time of the sale used to determine the export price or constructed export price under section 1677a (a) or (b) of this title.
(B) Price
The price referred to in subparagraph (A) is—
(i) the price at which the foreign like product is first sold (or, in the absence of a sale, offered for sale) for consumption in the exporting country, in the usual commercial quantities and in the ordinary course of trade and, to the extent practicable, at the same level of trade as the export price or constructed export price, or
(ii) in a case to which subparagraph (C) applies, the price at which the foreign like product is so sold (or offered for sale) for consumption in a country other than the exporting country or the United States, if—
(I) such price is representative,
(II) the aggregate quantity (or, if quantity is not appropriate, value) of the foreign like product sold by the exporter or producer in such other country is 5 percent or more of the aggregate quantity (or value) of the subject merchandise sold in the United States or for export to the United States, and
(III) the administering authority does not determine that the particular market situation in such other country prevents a proper comparison with the export price or constructed export price.
(C) Third country sales
This subparagraph applies when—
(i) the foreign like product is not sold (or offered for sale) for consumption in the exporting country as described in subparagraph (B)(i),
(ii) the administering authority determines that the aggregate quantity (or, if quantity is not appropriate, value) of the foreign like product sold in the exporting country is insufficient to permit a proper comparison with the sales of the subject merchandise to the United States, or
(iii) the particular market situation in the exporting country does not permit a proper comparison with the export price or constructed export price.
For purposes of clause (ii), the aggregate quantity (or value) of the foreign like product sold in the exporting country shall normally be considered to be insufficient if such quantity (or value) is less than 5 percent of the aggregate quantity (or value) of sales of the subject merchandise to the United States.
(2) Fictitious markets
No pretended sale or offer for sale, and no sale or offer for sale intended to establish a fictitious market, shall be taken into account in determining normal value. The occurrence of different movements in the prices at which different forms of the foreign like product are sold (or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale) in the exporting country after the issuance of an antidumping duty order may be considered by the administering authority as evidence of the establishment of a fictitious market for the foreign like product if the movement in such prices appears to reduce the amount by which the normal value exceeds the export price (or the constructed export price) of the subject merchandise.
(3) Exportation from an intermediate country
Where the subject merchandise is exported to the United States from an intermediate country, normal value shall be determined in the intermediate country, except that normal value may be determined in the country of origin of the subject merchandise if—
(A) the producer knew at the time of the sale that the subject merchandise was destined for exportation;
(B) the subject merchandise is merely transshipped through the intermediate country;
(C) sales of the foreign like product in the intermediate country do not satisfy the conditions of paragraph (1)(C); or
(D) the foreign like product is not produced in the intermediate country.
(4) Use of constructed value
If the administering authority determines that the normal value of the subject merchandise cannot be determined under paragraph (1)(B)(i), then, notwithstanding paragraph (1)(B)(ii), the normal value of the subject merchandise may be the constructed value of that merchandise, as determined under subsection (e) of this section.
(5) Indirect sales or offers for sale
If the foreign like product is sold or, in the absence of sales, offered for sale through an affiliated party, the prices at which the foreign like product is sold (or offered for sale) by such affiliated party may be used in determining normal value.
(6) Adjustments
The price described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be—
(A) increased by the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the subject merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States;
(B) reduced by—
(i) when included in the price described in paragraph (1)(B), the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the foreign like product in condition packed ready for shipment to the place of delivery to the purchaser,
(ii) the amount, if any, included in the price described in paragraph (1)(B), attributable to any additional costs, charges, and expenses incident to bringing the foreign like product from the original place of shipment to the place of delivery to the purchaser, and
(iii) the amount of any taxes imposed directly upon the foreign like product or components thereof which have been rebated, or which have not been collected, on the subject merchandise, but only to the extent that such taxes are added to or included in the price of the foreign like product, and
(C) increased or decreased by the amount of any difference (or lack thereof) between the export price or constructed export price and the price described in paragraph (1)(B) (other than a difference for which allowance is otherwise provided under this section) that is established to the satisfaction of the administering authority to be wholly or partly due to—
(i) the fact that the quantities in which the subject merchandise is sold or agreed to be sold to the United States are greater than or less than the quantities in which the foreign like product is sold, agreed to be sold, or offered for sale,
(ii) the fact that merchandise described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 1677 (16) of this title is used in determining normal value, or
(iii) other differences in the circumstances of sale.
(7) Additional adjustments
(A) Level of trade
The price described in paragraph (1)(B) shall also be increased or decreased to make due allowance for any difference (or lack thereof) between the export price or constructed export price and the price described in paragraph (1)(B) (other than a difference for which allowance is otherwise made under this section) that is shown to be wholly or partly due to a difference in level of trade between the export price or constructed export price and normal value, if the difference in level of trade—
(i) involves the performance of different selling activities; and
(ii) is demonstrated to affect price comparability, based on a pattern of consistent price differences between sales at different levels of trade in the country in which normal value is determined.
In a case described in the preceding sentence, the amount of the adjustment shall be based on the price differences between the two levels of trade in the country in which normal value is determined.
(B) Constructed export price offset
When normal value is established at a level of trade which constitutes a more advanced stage of distribution than the level of trade of the constructed export price, but the data available do not provide an appropriate basis to determine under subparagraph (A)(ii) a level of trade adjustment, normal value shall be reduced by the amount of indirect selling expenses incurred in the country in which normal value is determined on sales of the foreign like product but not more than the amount of such expenses for which a deduction is made under section 1677a (d)(1)(D) of this title.
(8) Adjustments to constructed value
Constructed value as determined under subsection (e) of this section, may be adjusted, as appropriate, pursuant to this subsection.
(b) Sales at less than cost of production
(1) Determination; sales disregarded
Whenever the administering authority has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product under consideration for the determination of normal value have been made at prices which represent less than the cost of production of that product, the administering authority shall determine whether, in fact, such sales were made at less than the cost of production. If the administering authority determines that sales made at less than the cost of production—
(A) have been made within an extended period of time in substantial quantities, and
(B) were not at prices which permit recovery of all costs within a reasonable period of time,
such sales may be disregarded in the determination of normal value. Whenever such sales are disregarded, normal value shall be based on the remaining sales of the foreign like product in the ordinary course of trade. If no sales made in the ordinary course of trade remain, the normal value shall be based on the constructed value of the merchandise.
(2) Definitions and special rules
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) Reasonable grounds to believe or suspect
There are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that sales of the foreign like product were made at prices that are less than the cost of production of the product, if—
(i) in an investigation initiated under section 1673a of this title or a review conducted under section 1675 of this title, an interested party described in subparagraph (C), (D), (E), (F), or (G) of section 1677 (9) of this title provides information, based upon observed prices or constructed prices or costs, that sales of the foreign like product under consideration for the determination of normal value have been made at prices which represent less than the cost of production of the product; or
(ii) in a review conducted under section 1675 of this title involving a specific exporter, the administering authority disregarded some or all of the exporter’s sales pursuant to paragraph (1) in the investigation or if a review has been completed, in the most recently completed review.
(B) Extended period of time
The term “extended period of time” means a period that is normally 1 year, but not less than 6 months.
(C) Substantial quantities
Sales made at prices below the cost of production have been made in substantial quantities if—
(i) the volume of such sales represents 20 percent or more of the volume of sales under consideration for the determination of normal value, or
(ii) the weighted average per unit price of the sales under consideration for the determination of normal value is less than the weighted average per unit cost of production for such sales.
(D) Recovery of costs
If prices which are below the per unit cost of production at the time of sale are above the weighted average per unit cost of production for the period of investigation or review, such prices shall be considered to provide for recovery of costs within a reasonable period of time.
(3) Calculation of cost of production
For purposes of this part, the cost of production shall be an amount equal to the sum of—
(A) the cost of materials and of fabrication or other processing of any kind employed in producing the foreign like product, during a period which would ordinarily permit the production of that foreign like product in the ordinary course of business;
(B) an amount for selling, general, and administrative expenses based on actual data pertaining to production and sales of the foreign like product by the exporter in question; and
(C) the cost of all containers and coverings of whatever nature, and all other expenses incidental to placing the foreign like product in condition packed ready for shipment.
For purposes of subparagraph (A), if the normal value is based on the price of the foreign like product sold for consumption in a country other than the exporting country, the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition which are remitted or refunded upon exportation.
(c) Nonmarket economy countries
(1) In general
If—
(A) the subject merchandise is exported from a nonmarket economy country, and
(B) the administering authority finds that available information does not permit the normal value of the subject merchandise to be determined under subsection (a) of this section,
the administering authority shall determine the normal value of the subject merchandise on the basis of the value of the factors of production utilized in producing the merchandise and to which shall be added an amount for general expenses and profit plus the cost of containers, coverings, and other expenses. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the valuation of the factors of production shall be based on the best available information regarding the values of such factors in a market economy country or countries considered to be appropriate by the administering authority.
(2) Exception
If the administering authority finds that the available information is inadequate for purposes of determining the normal value of subject merchandise under paragraph (1), the administering authority shall determine the normal value on the basis of the price at which merchandise that is—
(A) comparable to the subject merchandise, and
(B) produced in one or more market economy countries that are at a level of economic development comparable to that of the nonmarket economy country,
is sold in other countries, including the United States.
(3) Factors of production
For purposes of paragraph (1), the factors of production utilized in producing merchandise include, but are not limited to—
(A) hours of labor required,
(B) quantities of raw materials employed,
(C) amounts of energy and other utilities consumed, and
(D) representative capital cost, including depreciation.
(4) Valuation of factors of production
The administering authority, in valuing factors of production under paragraph (1), shall utilize, to the extent possible, the prices or costs of factors of production in one or more market economy countries that are—
(A) at a level of economic development comparable to that of the nonmarket economy country, and
(B) significant producers of comparable merchandise.
(d) Special rule for certain multinational corporations
Whenever, in the course of an investigation under this subtitle, the administering authority determines that—
(1) subject merchandise exported to the United States is being produced in facilities which are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by a person, firm, or corporation which also owns or controls, directly or indirectly, other facilities for the production of the foreign like product which are located in another country or countries,
(2) subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section applies, and
(3) the normal value of the foreign like product produced in one or more of the facilities outside the exporting country is higher than the normal value of the foreign like product produced in the facilities located in the exporting country,
it shall determine the normal value of the subject merchandise by reference to the normal value at which the foreign like product is sold in substantial quantities from one or more facilities outside the exporting country. The administering authority, in making any determination under this paragraph, shall make adjustments for the difference between the cost of production (including taxes, labor, materials, and overhead) of the foreign like product produced in facilities outside the exporting country and costs of production of the foreign like product produced in facilities in the exporting country, if such differences are demonstrated to its satisfaction. For purposes of this subsection, in determining the normal value of the foreign like product produced in a country outside of the exporting country, the administering authority shall determine its price at the time of exportation from the exporting country and shall make any adjustments required by subsection (a) of this section for the cost of all containers and coverings and all other costs, charges, and expenses incident to placing the merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States by reference to such costs in the exporting country.
(e) Constructed value
For purposes of this subtitle, the constructed value of imported merchandise shall be an amount equal to the sum of—
(1) the cost of materials and fabrication or other processing of any kind employed in producing the merchandise, during a period which would ordinarily permit the production of the merchandise in the ordinary course of business;
(2)
(A) the actual amounts incurred and realized by the specific exporter or producer being examined in the investigation or review for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale of a foreign like product, in the ordinary course of trade, for consumption in the foreign country, or
(B) if actual data are not available with respect to the amounts described in subparagraph (A), then—
(i) the actual amounts incurred and realized by the specific exporter or producer being examined in the investigation or review for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale, for consumption in the foreign country, of merchandise that is in the same general category of products as the subject merchandise,
(ii) the weighted average of the actual amounts incurred and realized by exporters or producers that are subject to the investigation or review (other than the exporter or producer described in clause (i)) for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, in connection with the production and sale of a foreign like product, in the ordinary course of trade, for consumption in the foreign country, or
(iii) the amounts incurred and realized for selling, general, and administrative expenses, and for profits, based on any other reasonable method, except that the amount allowed for profit may not exceed the amount normally realized by exporters or producers (other than the exporter or producer described in clause (i)) in connection with the sale, for consumption in the foreign country, of merchandise that is in the same general category of products as the subject merchandise; and
(3) the cost of all containers and coverings of whatever nature, and all other expenses incidental to placing the subject merchandise in condition packed ready for shipment to the United States.
For purposes of paragraph (1), the cost of materials shall be determined without regard to any internal tax in the exporting country imposed on such materials or their disposition which are remitted or refunded upon exportation of the subject merchandise produced from such materials.
(f) Special rules for calculation of cost of production and for calculation of constructed value
For purposes of subsections (b) and (e) of this section.—
(1) Costs
(A) In general
Costs shall normally be calculated based on the records of the exporter or producer of the merchandise, if such records are kept in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles of the exporting country (or the producing country, where appropriate) and reasonably reflect the costs associated with the production and sale of the merchandise. The administering authority shall consider all available evidence on the proper allocation of costs, including that which is made available by the exporter or producer on a timely basis, if such allocations have been historically used by the exporter or producer, in particular for establishing appropriate amortization and depreciation periods, and allowances for capital expenditures and other development costs.
(B) Nonrecurring costs
Costs shall be adjusted appropriately for those nonrecurring costs that benefit current or future production, or both.
(C) Startup costs
(i) In general Costs shall be adjusted appropriately for circumstances in which costs incurred during the time period covered by the investigation or review are affected by startup operations.
(ii) Startup operations Adjustments shall be made for startup operations only where—
(I) a producer is using new production facilities or producing a new product that requires substantial additional investment, and
(II) production levels are limited by technical factors associated with the initial phase of commercial production.
 For purposes of subclause (II), the initial phase of commercial production ends at the end of the startup period. In determining whether commercial production levels have been achieved, the administering authority shall consider factors unrelated to startup operations that might affect the volume of production processed, such as demand, seasonality, or business cycles.
(iii) Adjustment for startup operations The adjustment for startup operations shall be made by substituting the unit production costs incurred with respect to the merchandise at the end of the startup period for the unit production costs incurred during the startup period. If the startup period extends beyond the period of the investigation or review under this subtitle, the administering authority shall use the most recent cost of production data that it reasonably can obtain, analyze, and verify without delaying the timely completion of the investigation or review. For purposes of this subparagraph, the startup period ends at the point at which the level of commercial production that is characteristic of the merchandise, producer, or industry concerned is achieved.
(2) Transactions disregarded
A transaction directly or indirectly between affiliated persons may be disregarded if, in the case of any element of value required to be considered, the amount representing that element does not fairly reflect the amount usually reflected in sales of merchandise under consideration in the market under consideration. If a transaction is disregarded under the preceding sentence and no other transactions are available for consideration, the determination of the amount shall be based on the information available as to what the amount would have been if the transaction had occurred between persons who are not affiliated.
(3) Major input rule
If, in the case of a transaction between affiliated persons involving the production by one of such persons of a major input to the merchandise, the administering authority has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that an amount represented as the value of such input is less than the cost of production of such input, then the administering authority may determine the value of the major input on the basis of the information available regarding such cost of production, if such cost is greater than the amount that would be determined for such input under paragraph (2).

Source

(June 17, 1930, ch. 497, title VII, § 773, as added Pub. L. 96–39, title I, § 101,July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 182; amended Pub. L. 98–573, title VI, §§ 615, 620(b),Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3036, 3039; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1886(a)(11),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2922; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §§ 1316(a), 1318, 1319,Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1186, 1189; Pub. L. 103–465, title II, § 224,Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4878.)
Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–465amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to foreign market value, which provided for determination of value in subsec. (a), sales at less than cost of production in subsec. (b), treatment of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries in subsec. (c), special rule for certain multinational corporations in subsec. (d), determination of constructed value in subsec. (e), and exportation from an intermediate country in subsec. (f).
1988—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1319, added par. (5).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1316(a), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to nonmarket economy countries, for provisions relating to State-controlled economies.
Subsec. (e)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1318, substituted “(4)” for “(3)” wherever appearing in par. (2), added par. (3), and redesignated former par. (3) as (4) and in introductory provisions substituted “paragraphs (2) and (3)” for “paragraph (2)”.
1986—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 99–514redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).
1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–573, § 615(1), substituted “time such merchandise is first sold within the United States by the person for whom (or for whose account) the merchandise is imported to any other person who is not described in subsection (e)(3) of this section with respect to such person” for “time of exportation of such merchandise to the United States” in provisions before subpar. (A).
Subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (4)(A), (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–573, § 615(2), substituted “commercial quantities” for “wholesale quantities” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–573, § 620(b), struck out subsec. (f) which related to the authority to use sampling techniques and to disregard insignificant adjustments.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–573, § 615(3), added subsec. (g).
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465effective, except as otherwise provided, on the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1995], and applicable with respect to investigations, reviews, and inquiries initiated and petitions filed under specified provisions of this chapter after such date, see section 291 ofPub. L. 103–465, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by sections 1316(a) and 1318 ofPub. L. 100–418applicable with respect to investigations initiated after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under section 1673e (c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, and amendment by section 1319 ofPub. L. 100–418applicable with respect to reviews initiated under section 1673e (c) or 1675 of this title after Aug. 23, 1988, and to reviews initiated under such sections which are pending on Aug. 23, 1988, and in which a request for revocation is pending on Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1337(b), (f) ofPub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 615 ofPub. L. 98–573effective Oct. 30, 1984, and amendment by section 620(b) ofPub. L. 98–573applicable with respect to investigations initiated by petition or by the administering authority under parts I and II of this subtitle, and to reviews begun under section 1675 of this title, on or after Oct. 30, 1984, see section 626(a), (b)(1) ofPub. L. 98–573, as amended, set out as a note under section 1671 of this title.
Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§ 1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§ 1801–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 ofPub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

 

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