19 U.S. Code § 2111 - Basic authority for trade agreements

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(a) Presidential authority to enter into agreement; modification or continuance of existing duties
Whenever the President determines that any existing duties or other import restrictions of any foreign country or the United States are unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that the purposes of this chapter will be promoted thereby, the President—
(1) during the 5-year period beginning on January 3, 1975, may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities thereof; and
(2) may proclaim such modification or continuance of any existing duty, such continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment, or such additional duties, as he determines to be required or appropriate to carry out any such trade agreement.
(b) Limitation on authority to decrease duty
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no proclamation pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section shall be made decreasing a rate of duty to a rate below 40 percent of the rate existing on January 1, 1975.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of any article for which the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, is not more than 5 percent ad valorem.
(c) Limitation on authority to increase duty
No proclamation shall be made pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section increasing any rate of duty to, or imposing a rate above, the higher of the following:
(1) the rate which is 50 percent above the rate set forth in rate column numbered 2 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States as in effect on January 1, 1975, or
(2) the rate which is 20 percent ad valorem above the rate existing on January 1, 1975.

Source

(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, § 101,Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1982.)
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of this title and Tables.
The Tariff Schedules of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), to be treated as a reference to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule pursuant to section 3012 of this title. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.
Change of Name

The Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations was redesignated the Office of the United States Trade Representative, and Special Representative for Trade Negotiations was redesignated the United States Trade Representative by Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1979, § 1(a), (b)(1),44 F.R. 69273, 93 Stat. 1381, eff. Jan. 2, 1980, as provided by section 1–107(a) of Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 993, set out as notes under section 2171 of this title. See, also, section 2171 of this title as amended by Pub. L. 97–456.
Reorganizing and Restructuring of International Trade Functions of United States Government

Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, § 1109,July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 413, provided that the President submit to the Congress, not later than July 10, 1979, a proposal to restructure the international trade functions of the Executive Branch of the United States Government, and directed, in order to ensure that the 96th Congress takes final action on a comprehensive reorganization of trade functions as soon as possible, that the appropriate committee of each House of the Congress give the proposal by the President immediate consideration and make its best efforts to take final committee action to reorganize and restructure the international trade functions of the United States Government by Nov. 10, 1979.
Study of Export Trade Policy

Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, § 1110,July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 314, directed the President to review all export promotion functions of the executive branch and potential programmatic and regulatory disincentives to exports, and to submit to the Congress a report of that review not later than July 15, 1980, and not later than July 15, 1980, to submit to the Congress a study of the factors bearing on the competitive posture of United States producers and the policies and programs required to strengthen the relative competitive position of the United States in world markets.
Proc. No. 4707. Carrying Out the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and for Other Purposes

Proc. No. 4707, Dec. 11, 1979, 44 F.R. 72348, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12204, Mar. 27, 1980, 45 F.R. 20740; Proc. No. 4792, Sept. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 61589; Proc. No. 4889, Dec. 29, 1981, 47 F.R. 1; Proc. No. 4904, Feb. 27, 1982, 47 F.R. 8753; Ex. Ord. No. 12354, Mar. 30, 1982, 47 F.R. 13477; Ex. Ord. No. 12371, July 12, 1982, 47 F.R. 30449; Ex. Ord. No. 12389, Oct. 25, 1982, 47 F.R. 47529; Ex. Ord. No. 12413, Mar. 30, 1983, 48 F.R. 13921; Proc. No. 5050, Apr. 15, 1983, 48 F.R. 16639; Ex. Ord. No. 12459, Jan. 16, 1984, 49 F.R. 2089; Ex. Ord. No. 12471, Mar. 30, 1984, 49 F.R. 13101; Ex. Ord. No. 12519, June 13, 1985, 50 F.R. 25037; Proc. No. 5365, Aug. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 36220; Proc. No. 5452, Mar. 31, 1986, 51 F.R. 11539, provided:
1. Pursuant to Section 101(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (a)), I determined that certain existing duties and other import restrictions of the United States and of foreign countries were unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States and that one or more of the purposes stated in Section 2 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2102) would be promoted by entering into the trade agreements identified in the third and fourth recitals of this proclamation.
2. Sections 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 161(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2151, 2152, 2153, 2154, 2155, and 2211 (b)) andSection 4(c) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 974) [set out below], have been complied with.
3. Pursuant to Section 101(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (a)(1)), I, through my duly empowered representative, (1) on July 11, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with other contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pts. 5 and 6)), as amended (the General Agreement), with countries seeking to accede to the General Agreement, and the European Economic Community, which agreement consists of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto (hereinafter referred to as “Schedule XX (Geneva-1979)”), a copy of which Geneva (1979) Protocol (including Schedule XX (Geneva-1979) annexed thereto) is annexed to this proclamation as Part 1 of Annex I [set out below], (2) on November 18, 1978, entered into a trade agreement with the Hungarian People’s Republic, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto, a copy of which agreement, and schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 2 of Annex I [set out below], (3) on October 31, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with the United Mexican States, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 3 of Annex I [set out below], and (4) on March 2, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with the Socialist Republic of Romania, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 4 of Annex I [set out below], and on October 24, 1979, the American Institute in Taiwan entered into a trade agreement with the Coordination Council for North American Affairs (see the Taiwan Relations Act, Sections 4 (b)(1), 6 (a)(1), and 10 (a),93 Stat. 15, 17, and 18 [22 U.S.C. 3303 (b)(1), 3305 (a)(1), and 3309 (a)], E.O. 12143, sections 1–203 and 1–204, 44 Fed. Reg. 37191) [former 22 U.S.C. 3301 note], which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, one enclosing a schedule of the United States concessions, a copy of which exchange of letters, including such enclosed schedule, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 5 of Annex I [set out below].
4. Pursuant to Section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112), I have determined that barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade were unduly burdening and restricting the foreign trade of the United States, and, through the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative, see Change of Name note above] (the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]), I have consulted with the appropriate Committees of the Congress, notified the House of Representatives and the Senate of my intention to enter into the agreements identified in Section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)], transmitted to the Congress copies of such agreements (a copy of one of which agreements, with the Hungarian People’s Republic, is annexed to this proclamation as Part 6 of Annex I [set out below]), together with a draft of an implementing bill and a statement of administrative action, and such implementing bill, approving the agreements and the proposed administrative action, has been enacted into law (Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (a)]).
5. (a) Pursuant to Section 502 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], I have determined that appropriate concessions have been received from foreign countries under trade agreements entered into under Title I of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 et seq.);
(b) Pursuant to Section 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 267), I have determined that duty-free treatment for certain articles now classified in the items of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202) (TSUS) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title] listed in, and certified pursuant to, Section 601(a)(2) of that Act (93 Stat. 267), will provide treatment comparable to that provided by foreign countries under the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft;
(c) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251), I have determined, after providing interested parties an opportunity to comment, that each article identified in Annex IV to this proclamation [see note below] is not import sensitive;
(d) Pursuant to Section 855(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 295), I have determined that adequate reciprocal concessions have been received, under trade agreements entered into under the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter], for the application of the rate of duty appearing in rate column numbered 1 on January 1, 1979, for the comparable item on a proof gallon basis in the case of alcoholic beverages classified in all items in subpart D of part 12 of schedule 1 of the TSUS, except items 168.09, 168.12, 168.43, 168.77, 168.81, 168.87, and 168.95 [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title];
(e) Pursuant to Section 2(b)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (b)(2)(A)], I have determined that obligations substantially the same as those applicable to developing countries set forth in the agreements listed in Section 2(c)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5)] will be observed in Taiwan.
6. Each modification of existing duty proclaimed herein which provides with respect to an article for a decrease in duty below the limitation specified in Sections 101(b)(1) or 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (b)(1) or 2119 (a)), and each modification of any other import restriction or tariff provision so proclaimed is authorized by one or more of the following provisions or statutes:
(a) Section 101(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (b)(2)), by virtue of the fact that the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, applicable to the article was not more than 5 percent ad valorem (or ad valorem equivalent);
(b) Section 109(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119 (b)), by virtue of the fact that I have determined, pursuant to that section, that the decrease authorized by that section will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to the article;
(c) Sections 503(a)(2)(A) and 503(a)(3) to (6) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251 and 252) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] by virtue of the fact that they permit departures from the staging provisions of Section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119 (a));
(d) Sections 502(a), 855(a), and 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251, 295, and 267) by virtue of the authority in such sections for specified concessions based on reciprocity, but in the case of the last such section only after the conditions for acceptance of the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft, identified in Section 2(c)(10) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)(10)], are fulfilled;
(e) Sections 505 through 513, inclusive, of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 252–257) by virtue of the fact that they permit exceeding the limitations specified in Sections 101 or 109 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 or 2119);
(f) Section 255 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1885) by virtue of the fact that it permits termination of proclamations issued pursuant to authority contained in that act;
(g) Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (a)] by virtue of its approval of the agreements identified in Section 2(c) of that Act (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)], and
(h) Section 304(a)(3)(J) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1304 (a)(3)(J)) andSection 602(f) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2101 note), by virtue of the fact that I have found that the effectiveness of the proviso to Section 304(a)(3)(J) [19 U.S.C. 1304 (a)(3)(J)] with respect to the marking of articles provided for in headnote 2 of part 1 of schedule 2 of the TSUS [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title] is required or appropriate to carry out the first agreement identified in the third recital of this proclamation.
7. In the case of each decrease in duty, including those of the type specified in clause (a) or (b) of the sixth recital of this proclamation, which involves the determination of the ad valorem equivalent of a specific or compound rate of duty, and in the case of each modification in the form of an import duty, the United States International Trade Commission determined, pursuant to Section 601(4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2481 (4)) in accordance with Section 4(e) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 973) [set out below], and at my direction, the ad valorem equivalent of the specific or compound rate, on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during a period determined by it to be representative, utilizing, to the extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 1402) applicable to the article during such representative period.
8. Pursuant to the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] and the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], I determine that the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions or the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment hereinafter proclaimed is required or appropriate to carry out the trade agreements identified in the third recital of this proclamation or one or more of the trade agreements identified in Section 2(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 148) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (c)].
9. Following unsatisfactory negotiations with the European Economic Community under Articles XXIV:6 and XXVIII of the General Agreement regarding the maintenance by the European Economic Community of unreasonable import restrictions upon imports of poultry from the United States, the President, by Proclamation 3564 of December 4, 1963 (77 Stat. 1035), suspended certain United States tariff concessions; as a result of the reciprocal concessions contained in the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, I determine that the termination of such suspension of tariff concessions contained in Proclamation 3564 (except those applicable to automobile trucks valued at $1,000 or more (provided for in TSUS item 692.02) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title]) is required to carry out the General Agreement.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, including but not limited to Title I and Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974 [this subchapter and 19 U.S.C. 2483], Section 2 [19 U.S.C. 2503], and Titles V, VI, and VIII of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] Section 255 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [19 U.S.C. 1885], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, do proclaim that:
(1) At the close of December 31, 1979, the suspension of tariff concessions contained in Proclamation 3564 (except those applicable to automobile trucks valued at $1,000 or more (provided for in TSUS item 692.02) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note under section 1202 of this title]) shall terminate.
(2) The amendment to Section 466 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1466) provided for in Section 601(a)(3) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 268) shall be effective with respect to entries made under Section 466 on and after the date designated by the President under paragraph 5(b) of this proclamation.
(3) The rate of duty applicable to each item as to which the determination has been made in recital 5(d) is the rate of duty appearing in rate column numbered 1 on January 1, 1979, for the comparable item on a proof gallon basis or such rate as reduced under Section 101 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111).
(4) Subject to the provisions of the General Agreement, of the Geneva (1979) Protocol, of other agreements supplemental to the General Agreement, of the other agreements identified in recitals 3 and 4, and of United States law (including but not limited to provisions for more favorable treatment), the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions and the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment provided for in Schedule XX (Geneva-1979) (except those provided for in the items listed in Parts 1C, 1D, 2D, 2E, 2K, 3C, 3D, 4C, and 4D of Annex I to Schedule XX which are required to implement the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and those provided for in Section 1, Chapter 4Section 1, Chapter 4, Unit C, Note 2 (cheese quotas), and in Section 1, Chapter 10Section 1, Chapter 10, Unit B, note 2 (chocolate quotas), all of which will be the subject of one or more separate proclamations), in the agreements identified in the third and fourth recitals of this proclamation, and in trade agreements legislation, shall become effective on or after January 1, 1980, as provided for herein.
(5) To this end—
(a) Except as provided for in subparagraph (b), the modifications to the TSUS made by Annex II, Section A of Annex III, and Sections B(1) through (4) of Annex IV of this proclamation [see note below] shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;
(b) The modifications provided for in Section A of Annex II to this proclamation [see note below] which are authorized by Section 601(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 267) shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the date designated by the President when he determines that the requirements of Section 2(b) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (b)] have been met with respect to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft;
(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall make any determinations relevant to the designation of the effective dates of the modifications of the TSUS made by Sections B through G of Annex III, and Sections B (5) through (10) of Annex IV of this proclamation, [see note below] and shall publish in the Federal Register the effective date with respect to each of the modifications made by these sections; such modifications shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after such effective date;
(d) The modifications to the TSUS made by Section C of Annex IV to this proclamation, [see note below] relating to special treatment for the least developed developing countries (LDDC’s), shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on and after the effective dates as provided for in Section B of Annex IV [see note below]; whenever the rate of duty specified in the column numbered 1 for any TSUS item is reduced to the same level as the corresponding rate of duty specified in the column entitled “LDDC” for such item, the rate of duty in the column entitled “LDDC” shall be deleted from the TSUS, and when the duty rates for all such items in Annex IV [see note below] have been deleted, the modifications to the TSUS made by Section C of Annex IV to this proclamation [see note below] shall be deleted;
(e) Section A of Annex IV [see note below] shall become effective on January 1, 1980.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eleventh day of December, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fourth.
Jimmy Carter.
Annex I

Texts of Agreements Identified in the Third and Fourth Recitals of This Proclamation  [1]

   Not printed in the Federal Register. The text of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement in part 1 of Annex I has been printed by the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in four volumes entitled Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade. The Agreement with the Hungarian People’s Republic in part 6 of Annex I has been printed in House Document 96–153, vol. 1, p. 703. The general provisions of all the agreements in parts 1 to 6 of annex I, but not schedules of concessions by other parties, will be printed in the Customs Bulletin. The texts of all these agreements will be printed in Treaties and Other International Acts Series, and in the bound volumes of United States Treaties and Other International Agreements. Part 1 Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Including Schedules of Concessions) Part 2 Trade Agreement with the People’s Republic of Hungary Entered Into on November 18, 1979 Part 3 Trade Agreement with the United Mexican States Entered Into on October 31, 1979 Part 4 Trade Agreement with the Socialist Republic of Romania Entered Into on March 2, 1979 Part 5 Trade Agreement between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Coordination Council for North American Affairs Entered Into on October 24, 1979 Part 6 Agreement with the Hungarian People’s Republic Entered Into on June 13, 1979
Annexes II to IV

Annexes II to IV of Proclamation 4707, which amended the Tariff Schedules of the United States, are not set out under this section because the Tariff Schedules were not set out in the Code. The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.
Proc. No. 4768. Carrying Out the Agreement on Implementation of Articles VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and for Other Purpose

Proc. No. 4768, June 28, 1980, 45 F.R. 45135, as amended by Proc. No. 4792, Sept. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 61589; Ex. Ord. No. 12311, § 5, June 29, 1981, 46 F.R. 34305; Proc. No. 4904, Feb. 27, 1982, 47 F.R. 8753; Ex. Ord. No. 12354, Mar. 30, 1982, 47 F.R. 13477; Ex. Ord. No. 12413, Mar. 30, 1983, 48 F.R. 13921; Ex. Ord. No. 12471, Mar. 30, 1984, 49 F.R. 13101; Ex. Ord. No. 12519, June 13, 1985, 50 F.R. 25037; Proc. No. 5365, Aug. 30, 1985, 50 F.R. 36220; Proc. No. 5452, Mar. 31, 1986, 51 F.R. 11539, provided:
1. Pursuant to Section 204(a)(2) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 203) [19 U.S.C. 1401a note] in order to implement, beginning on July 1, 1980, the new customs valuation standards as provided in Title II of that Act [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 194], and for other purposes, I make the following determinations, and do proclaim as hereinafter set forth.
2. Section 225 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 235) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], Sections 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 161(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2151, 2152, 2153, 2154, 2155, and 2211 (b)) andSection 4(c) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975, (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp 974) [set out below], have been complied with.
3. Pursuant to Section 101(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (a)) and having made the determinations required by that section with regard to the following trade agreements, I, through my duly empowered representative, (1) on July 11, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with other contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (61 Stat. (pts. 5 and 6)), as amended (the General Agreement), with countries seeking to accede to the General Agreement, and the European Communities, which agreement consists of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement, including a schedule of United States concessions annexed thereto (hereinafter referred to as “Schedule XX (Geneva–1979)”), (2) on December 18, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with Switzerland, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 2 of Annex I, (3) on December 21 and 27, 1979, and on January 2, 1980, entered into trade agreements with the European Communities, which agreements consists of joint memoranda, copies of which are annexed to this proclamation as Part 3 of Annex I, (4) on January 2, 1980, entered into a trade agreement with the Dominican Republic, which agreement consists of an exchange of letters, a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 4 of Annex I, and (5) on December 29, 1979, entered into a trade agreement with Indonesia, which agreement consists of a memorandum and an exchange of letters, copies of which are annexed to this proclamation as Part 5 of Annex I.
4. After having complied with Section 102 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2112), and having made the required determinations, I notified Congress of my intention to enter into the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (a copy of which is annexed to this proclamation as Part 1 of Annex I); and an implementing bill, approving the agreement and the proposed administrative action, has been enacted into law (Section 2(a) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (a)]).
5. (a) Pursuant to Section 2(b)(3) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 147) [19 U.S.C. 2503 (b)(3)], I determine (1) that each major industrial country, as defined therein, with the exception of Canada, is accepting the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, (2) that the acceptance of this Agreement by Canada is not essential to the effective operation of the Agreement, (3) that a significant portion of United States trade will benefit from the Agreement, notwithstanding such nonacceptance, and (4) that it is in the national interest of the United States to accept the Agreement (and have so reported to the Congress);
(b) Pursuant to Section 204(a)(2)(A) and (B) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 203) [19 U.S.C. 1401a note], I determine that the European Communities (including the European Economic Community) have accepted the obligations of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade with respect to the United States and each of the member states of the European Communities has implemented the Agreement under its laws (effective July 1, 1980);
(c) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(1) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], I determine, after interested parties were provided an opportunity to comment, that the articles classifiable in the following new items of the Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202) [see Publication of Tariff Schedules note set out under section 1202 of this title], added thereto by Annex II to this proclamation, were not imported into the United States before January 1, 1978, and were not produced in the United States before May 1, 1978:
[Table of new items deleted]
(d) Pursuant to Section 503(a)(2)(A) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 251), I determine, after providing interested parties an opportunity to comment, that each article identified in Annex IV to this proclamation is not import sensitive.
6. Each modification of existing duty proclaimed herein which provides with respect to an article for a decrease in duty below the limitation specified in Sections 101(b)(1) or 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (b)(1) or 2119 (a)), and each modification of any other import restriction or tariff provision so proclaimed is authorized by one or more of the following provisions or statutes:
(a) Section 101(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2111 (b)(2)), by virtue of the fact that the rate of duty existing on January 1, 1975, applicable to the article was not more than 5 percent ad valorem (or ad valorem equivalent);
(b) Section 109(b) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119 (b)), by virtue of the fact that I have determined, pursuant to that section, that the decrease authorized by that section will simplify the computation of the amount of duty imposed with respect to the article; and
(c) The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 144 et seq.) [see 19 U.S.C. 2501] including, but not limited to, Sections 503 (a)(1), (2)(A) and (6) (93 Stat. 251 and 252) [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979] by virtue of the fact that they permit departures from the staging provisions of Section 109(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2119 (a)).
7. In the case of each decrease in duty, including those of the type specific in clause (a) or (b) of the sixth recital of this proclamation, which involves the determination of the ad valorem equivalent of a specified or compound rate of duty, and in the case of each modification in the form of an import duty, the United States International Trade Commission has determined, pursuant to Section 601(4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2481 (4)), in accordance with Section 4(e) of Executive Order No. 11846 of March 27, 1975 (3 CFR 1971–1975 Comp. 973) [set out below], and at my direction, the ad valorem equivalent of the specific or compound rate, on the basis of the value of imports of the article concerned during a period determined by it to be representative, utilizing, to the extent practicable, the standards of valuation contained in Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 1402) applicable to the article during such representative period.
8. Pursuant to the Trade Act of 1974 [this chapter] and the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [see 19 U.S.C. 2501], I determine that each modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions and each continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment hereinafter proclaimed is required or appropriate to carry out the trade agreements identified in the third recital of this proclamation or the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, JIMMY CARTER, President of the United States of America, acting under the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, including but not limited to Title I and Section 604 of the Trade Act of 1974 [this subchapter and 19 U.S.C. 2483], Section 2 [19 U.S.C. 2503] and Titles II and V of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 [Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979], and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, do proclaim that:
(1)(a) The valuation standards amendments made by Title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 194 et seq.) to Sections 402 and 402a of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a and 4102), and
(b) subject to the provisions of the General Agreement, of the Geneva (1979) Protocol, of other agreements supplemental to the General Agreement, of the other agreements identified in recitals 3 and 4, and of United States Law (including but not limited to provisions for more favorable treatment),—
(i) the modification or continuance of existing duties or other import restrictions, and
(ii) the continuance of existing duty-free or excise treatment provided for in these agreements and in trade agreements legislation, shall become effective on or after July 1, 1980, as provided for herein.
(2) To this end—
(a) The amendments made by Title II of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (93 Stat. 194 et seq.), except amendments made by section 223(b) [see Effective Date of 1979 Amendment note set out under section 1401a of this title], shall be effective with respect to articles exported to the United States on and after July 1, 1980;
(b) The TSUS is modified as provided in Annexes II, III and IV of the proclamation;
(c) The modifications to the TSUS made by Sections A and C of Annex II, and Section A of Annex III, of this proclamation shall be effective with respect to articles exported to the United States on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;
(d) The modifications to the TSUS made by Sections B, D and E of Annex II, Section B of Annex III, and Sections A and B of Annex IV, of this proclamation shall be effective with respect to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on and after the effective dates specified in those annexes;
(e) The United States Trade Representative shall make the necessary determinations relevant to the designation of the effective dates of the modifications of the TSUS made by Sections F and G of Annex II and Section C of Annex III to this proclamation, and shall publish in the Federal Register the effective date with respect to each of the modifications made by these sections; such modifications shall apply to articles entered, or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, on and after such effective date;
(f) With respect to the modifications to the TSUS made by Annex IV to this proclamation and Annex IV to Presidential Proclamation 4707 of December 11, 1979 [see note above], relating to special treatment for the least developed developing countries (LDDC’s), whenever the rate of duty specified in the column numbered 1 for any TSUS item is reduced to the same level as the corresponding rate of duty specified in the column entitled “LDDC” for such item, or to a lower level, the rate of duty in the column entitled “LDDC” shall be deleted from the TSUS;
(g) Annexes III and IV of Presidential Proclamation 4707 of December 11, 1979 [see note above], are superseded to the extent inconsistent with this proclamation.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 28th day of June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fourth.
Jimmy Carter.
Annexes I to IV

Annexes I to IV of Proclamation 4768, which amended the Tariff Schedules of the United States, are not set out under this section because the Tariff Schedules were not set out in the Code. The Tariff Schedules of the United States were replaced by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States which is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.
Ex. Ord. No. 11846. Administration of Trade Agreements Program

Ex. Ord. No. 11846, Mar. 27, 1975, 40 F.R. 14291, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11894, Jan. 3, 1976, 41 F.R. 1041; Ex. Ord. No. 11947, Nov. 8, 1976, 41 F.R. 49799; Ex. Ord. No. 12102, Nov. 17, 1978, 43 F.R. 54197; Ex Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673; Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989; Ex. Ord. No. 13277, § 4, Nov. 19, 2002, 67 F.R. 70306, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Trade Act of 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Act (Public Law 93–618, 88 Stat. 1978) [this chapter], the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1801), Section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1351), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The Trade Agreements Program.
The “trade agreements program” includes all activities consisting of, or related to, the negotiation or administration of international agreements which primarily concern trade and which are concluded pursuant to the authority vested in the President by the Constitution, Section 350 of the Tariff Act of 1930 [section 1351 of this title], as amended, the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1801 et seq. of this title], Divisions B [19 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.] and C of the Trade Act of 2002 [div. C of Pub. L. 107–210, see Short Title of 2002 Amendment note set out under section 3201 of this title],,[sic] or the Act [this chapter].
Sec. 2. The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative, see Change of Name note above].
(a) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative], hereinafter referred to as the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], in addition to the functions conferred upon him by the Act [this chapter], including Section 141 thereof [section 2171 of this title], and in addition to the functions and responsibilities set forth in this Order, shall be responsible for such other functions as the President may direct.
(b) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]
(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall prepare, for the President’s transmission to Congress, the annual report on the trade agreements program required by Section 163(a) of the Act [section 2213 (a) of this title]. At the request of the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], other agencies shall assist in the preparation of that report.
(d) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], except where expressly otherwise provided or prohibited by statute, Executive order, or instructions of the President, shall be responsible for the proper administration of the trade agreements program, and may, as he deems necessary, assign to the head of any Executive agency or body the performance of his duties which are incidental to the administration of the trade agreements program.
(e) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall consult with the Trade Policy Committee in connection with the performance of his functions, including those established or delegated by this Order and shall, as appropriate, consult with other Federal agencies or bodies. With respect to the performance of his functions under Title IV of the Act [section 2431 et seq. of this title], including those established or delegated by this Order, the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall also consult with the East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished].
(f) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall be responsible for the preparation and submission of any Proclamation which relates wholly or primarily to the trade agreements program. Any such Proclamation shall be subject to all the provisions of Executive Order No. 11030, as amended [set out under section 1505 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents] except that such Proclamation need not be submitted to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
(g) The Secretary of State shall advise the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], and the Committee, on the foreign policy implications of any action under the trade agreements program. The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall invite appropriate departments to participate in trade negotiations of particular interest to such departments, and the Department of State shall participate in trade negotiations which have a direct and significant impact on foreign policy.
Sec. 3. The Trade Policy Committee.
(a) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]
(b) The Committee shall have the functions conferred by the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1801 et seq. of this title], upon the inter-agency organization referred to in Section 242 thereof, as amended [section 1872 of this title], the functions delegated to it by the provisions of this Order, and such other functions as the President may from time to time direct. Recommendations and advice of the Committee shall be submitted to the President by the Chairman.
(c) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] or any other officer who is chief representative of the United States in a negotiation in connection with the trade agreements program shall keep the Committee informed with respect to the status and conduct of negotiations and shall consult with the Committee regarding the basic policy issues arising in the course of negotiations.
(d) Before making recommendations to the President under Section 242(b)(2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended [section 1872 (b)(2) of this title], the Committee shall, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], request the advice of the Adjustment Assistance Coordinating Committee, established by Section 281 of the Act [section 2392 of this title].
(e), (f) [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]
(g) The Trade Expansion Act Advisory Committee established by Section 4 of Executive Order No. 11075 of January 15, 1963, is abolished and all of its records are transferred to the Trade Policy Committee.
Sec. 4. Trade Negotiations Under Title I of the Act.
(a) The functions of the President under Section 102 of the Act [section 2112 of this title] concerning notice to, and consultation with, Congress, in connection with agreements on nontariff barriers to, and other distortions of, trade, are hereby delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].
(b) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], after consultation with the Committee, shall prepare, for the President’s transmission to Congress, all proposed legislation and other documents necessary or appropriate for the implementation of, or otherwise required in connection with, trade agreements; provided, however, that where implementation of an agreement on nontariff barriers to, and other distortions of, trade requires a change in a domestic law, the department or agency having the primary interest in the administration of such domestic law shall prepare and transmit to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] the proposed legislation necessary or appropriate for such implementation.
(c) The functions of the President under Section 131(a) of the Act [section 2151 (a) of this title], with respect to publishing and furnishing to the International Trade Commission lists of articles, are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The functions of the President under Section 131(c) of the Act [section 2151 (c) of this title] with respect to advice of the International Trade Commission and under Section 132 of the Act [section 2152 of this title] with respect to advice of the departments of the Federal Government and other sources, are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The functions of the President under Section 133 of the Act [section 2153 of this title] with respect to public hearings in connection with certain trade negotiations are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], who shall designate an interagency committee to hold and conduct any such hearings.
(d) The functions of the President under Section 135 of the Act [section 2155 of this title] with respect to advisory committees and, notwithstanding the provisions of any other Executive order, the functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (86 Stat. 770, 5 U.S.C. App.), except that of reporting annually to Congress, which are applicable to advisory committees under the Act [this chapter] are delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. In establishing and organizing general policy advisory committees or sector advisory committees under Section 135(c) of the Act [section 2155 (c) of this title], the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall act through the Secretaries of Commerce, Labor and Agriculture, as appropriate.
(e) The functions of the President with respect to determining ad valorem amounts and equivalents pursuant to Sections 601(3) and (4) of the Act [section 2481 (3) and (4) of this title] are hereby delegated to the Special Representative [now Trade Representative]. The International Trade Commission is requested to advise the Special Representative [now Trade Representative] with respect to determining such ad valorem amounts and equivalents. The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] shall seek the advice of the Commission and consult with the Committee with respect to the determination of such ad valorem amounts and equivalents.
(f) Advice of the International Trade Commission under Section 131 of the Act [section 2151 of this title], and other advice or reports by the International Trade Commission to the President or the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], the release or disclosure of which is not specifically authorized or required by law, shall not be released or disclosed in any manner or to any extent not specifically authorized by the President or by the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].
(g) All reports, findings, advice, determinations, hearing transcripts, briefs, and information which, under the terms of the Act [this chapter], the International Trade Commission is required to furnish to the President shall be transmitted to the President through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative].
Sec. 5. Import Relief and Market Disruption.
(a) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative] is authorized to request from the International Trade Commission the information specified in Sections 202(d) and 203(i)(1) and (2) of the Act [sections 2252 (d) and 2253 (i)(1) and (2) of this title].
(b) The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of Agriculture, as appropriate, is authorized to issue, under Section 203(g) of the Act [section 2253 (g) of this title], regulations governing the administration of any quantitative restrictions proclaimed in order to provide import relief and is authorized to issue, under Section 203(g) of the Act or 352(b) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 [section 1982 (b) of this title], regulations governing the entry, or withdrawal from warehouses for consumption, of articles pursuant to any orderly marketing agreement.
(c) The Secretary of Commerce shall exercise primary responsibility for monitoring imports under any orderly marketing agreement.
Sec. 6. [Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12188, Jan. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 989.]
Sec. 7. East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished].
(a) In accordance with Section 411 of the Act [section 2441 of this title], there is hereby established the East-West Foreign Trade Board [abolished], hereinafter referred to as the Board. The Board shall be composed of the following members and such additional members of the Executive branch as the President may designate:
(1) The Secretary of State.
(2) The Secretary of the Treasury.
(3) The Secretary of Defense.
(4) The Secretary of Agriculture.
(5) The Secretary of Commerce.
(6) The Special Representative for Trade Negotiations [now United States Trade Representative].
(7) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
(8) The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers.
(9) The President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
(10) [Deleted by Ex. Ord. No. 12102.]
The President shall designate the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Board. The President may designate an Executive Secretary, who shall be Chairman of a working group which will include membership from the agencies represented on the Board.
(b) The Board shall perform such functions as are required by Section 411 of the Act [section 2441 of this title] and such other functions as the President may direct.
(c) The Board is authorized to promulgate such rules and regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out its responsibilities under the Act [this chapter] and this Order.
(d) The Secretary of State shall advise the President with respect to determinations required to be made in connection with Sections 402 and 409 of the Act (dealing with freedom of emigration) [sections 2432 and 2439 of this title] and Section 403 (dealing with United States personnel missing in action in Southeast Asia) [section 2433 of this title], and shall prepare, for the President’s transmission to Congress, the reports and other documents required by Sections 402 and 409 of the Act.
(e) The President’s Committee on East-West Trade Policy, established by Executive Order No. 11789 of June 25, 1974, as amended by Section 6(d) of Executive Order No. 11808 of September 30, 1974, is abolished and all of its records are transferred to the Board.
Sec. 8. Generalized System of Preferences.
(a) The Special Representative [now Trade Representative], in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall be responsible for the administration of the generalized system of preferences under Title V of the Act [section 2461 et seq. of this title].
(b) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], shall advise the President as to which countries should be designated as beneficiary developing countries, and as to which articles should be designated as eligible articles for the purposes of the system of generalized preferences.
(c) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], shall perform the functions of the President specified in Section 503(a) of the Act [section 2463 (a) of this title], with respect to publishing and furnishing to the International Trade Commission lists of articles that may be considered for designation as eligible articles for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences.
(d) The Committee, through the Special Representative [now Trade Representative], to the extent necessary to determine the applicability of the provisions of Section 504(d) of the Act [section 2464 (d) of this title] to any eligible article, shall perform the functions of the President under Section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended [section 1332 (g) of this title], with respect to requests for investigations by, and reports from, the International Trade Commission.
Sec. 9. Prior Executive Orders.
(a) Executive Order No. 11789 of June 25, 1974, and Section 6(d) of Executive Order No. 11808 of September 30, 1974, relating to the President’s Committee on East-West Trade Policy are hereby revoked.
(b)(1) Sections 5(b), 7, and 8 of Executive Order No. 11075 of January 15, 1963, are hereby revoked effective April 3, 1975; (2) the remainder of Executive Order No. 11075, and Executive Order No. 11106 of April 18, 1963 and Executive Order No. 11113 of June 13, 1963, are hereby revoked.


Footnotes
[1]  Not printed in the Federal Register. The text of the Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreement in part 1 of Annex I has been printed by the Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in four volumes entitled Geneva (1979) Protocol to the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade. The Agreement with the Hungarian People’s Republic in part 6 of Annex I has been printed in House Document 96–153, vol. 1, p. 703. The general provisions of all the agreements in parts 1 to 6 of annex I, but not schedules of concessions by other parties, will be printed in the Customs Bulletin. The texts of all these agreements will be printed in Treaties and Other International Acts Series, and in the bound volumes of United States Treaties and Other International Agreements.

 

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