19 U.S. Code § 2439 - Freedom to emigrate to join a very close relative in United States

(a) Sanctions for emigration restrictions
To assure the continued dedication of the United States to the fundamental human rights and welfare of its own citizens, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, on or after January 3, 1975, no nonmarket economy country shall participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, directly or indirectly, and the President of the United States shall not conclude any commercial agreement with any such country, during the period beginning with the date on which the President determines that such country—
(1) denies its citizens the right or opportunity to join permanently through emigration, a very close relative in the United State, [1] such as a spouse, parent, child, brother, or sister;
(2) imposes more than a nominal tax on the visas or other documents required for emigration described in paragraph (1); or
(3) imposes more than a nominal tax, levy, fine, fee, or other charge on any citizen as a consequence of the desire of such citizen to emigrate as described in paragraph (1),
and ending on the date on which the President determines that such country is no longer in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3).
(b) Report to Congress concerning emigration policies
After January 3, 1975,
(A) a nonmarket economy country may participate in any program of the Government of the United States which extends credits or credit guarantees or investment guarantees, and
(B) the President may conclude a commercial agreement with such country, only after the President has submitted to the Congress a report indicating that such country is not in violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) of this section. Such report with respect to such country shall include information as to the nature and implementation of its laws and policies and restrictions or discrimination applied to or against persons wishing to emigrate to the United States to join close relatives. The report required by this subsection shall be submitted initially as provided herein and, with current information, on or before each June 30 and December 31 thereafter, so long as such credits or guarantees are extended or such agreement is in effect.
(c) Exemption from application of section
This section shall not apply to any country the products of which are eligible for the rates set forth in rate column numbered 1 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States on January 3, 1975.
(d) Additional exemption from application of section
During any period that a waiver is in effect with respect to any nonmarket economy country under section 2432 (c) of this title, the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply with respect to such country.

[1]  So in original.


(Pub. L. 93–618, title IV, § 409,Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2064.)
References in Text

The Tariff Schedules of the United States, referred to in subsec. (c), to be treated as a reference to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule, pursuant to section 3012 of this title. The Harmonized Tariff Schedule is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of this title.
Delegation of Functions

For delegation of congressional reporting functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13313, July 31, 2003, 68 F.R. 46073, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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19 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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