(a) Relationship of Agreement to United States law
(1) United States law to prevail in conflict
No provision of the Agreement, nor the application of any such provision to any person or circumstance, which is inconsistent with any law of the United States shall have effect.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed—
(A)to amend or modify any law of the United States, including any law regarding—
(i)the protection of human, animal, or plant life or health,
(ii)the protection of the environment, or
(iii)motor carrier or worker safety; or
(B)to limit any authority conferred under any law of the United States, including section
2411 of this title;
unless specifically provided for in this Act.
(b) Relationship of Agreement to State law
(1) Federal-State consultation
(A) In general
On December 8, 1993, the President shall, through the intergovernmental policy advisory committees on trade established under section
2114c(2)(A) of this title, consult with the States for the purpose of achieving conformity of State laws and practices with the Agreement.
(B) Federal-State consultation process
The Trade Representative shall establish within the Office of the United States Trade Representative a Federal-State consultation process for addressing issues relating to the Agreement that directly relate to, or will potentially have a direct impact on, the States. The Federal-State consultation process shall include procedures under which—
(i)the Trade Representative will assist the States in identifying those State laws that may not conform with the Agreement but may be maintained under the Agreement by reason of being in effect before the Agreement entered into force;
(ii)the States will be informed on a continuing basis of matters under the Agreement that directly relate to, or will potentially have a direct impact on, the States;
(iii)the States will be provided opportunity to submit, on a continuing basis, to the Trade Representative information and advice with respect to matters referred to in clause (ii);
(iv)the Trade Representative will take into account the information and advice received from the States under clause (iii) when formulating United States positions regarding matters referred to in clause (ii); and
(v)the States will be involved (including involvement through the inclusion of appropriate representatives of the States) to the greatest extent practicable at each stage of the development of United States positions regarding matters referred to in clause (ii) that will be addressed by committees, subcommittees, or working groups established under the Agreement or through dispute settlement processes provided for under the Agreement.
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Federal-State consultation process established by this paragraph.
(2) Legal challenge
No State law, or the application thereof, may be declared invalid as to any person or circumstance on the ground that the provision or application is inconsistent with the Agreement, except in an action brought by the United States for the purpose of declaring such law or application invalid.
(3) “State law” defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “State law” includes—
(A)any law of a political subdivision of a State; and
(B)any State law regulating or taxing the business of insurance.
(c) Effect of Agreement with respect to private remedies
No person other than the United States—
(1)shall have any cause of action or defense under—
(A)the Agreement or by virtue of Congressional approval thereof, or
(B)the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation or the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation; or
(2)may challenge, in any action brought under any provision of law, any action or inaction by any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of a State on the ground that such action or inaction is inconsistent with the Agreement, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, or the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 103–182, Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2057, known as the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
3301 of this title and Tables.
The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Termination of NAFTA Status
Section to cease to have effect with respect to any country during any period in which such country ceases to be a NAFTA country, see section 109(b) ofPub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date; Termination of NAFTA Status note under section
3311 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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