20 U.S. Code § 1221–1 - National policy with respect to equal educational opportunity
Recognizing that the Nation’s economic, political, and social security require a well-educated citizenry, the Congress
(1) reaffirms, as a matter of high priority, the Nation’s goal of equal educational opportunity, and
(2) declares it to be the policy of the United States of America that every citizen is entitled to an education to meet his or her full potential without financial barriers.
Source(Pub. L. 93–380, title VIII, § 801,Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 597.)
Section was enacted as part of Education Amendments of 1974, and not as part of General Education Provisions Act which comprises this chapter.
“(1) Unless otherwise specified, each provision of this Act [see Tables for classification] and each amendment made by this Act shall be effective on and after the sixtieth day after the enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1974].
“(2) In any case where the effective date for an amendment made by this Act is expressly stated to be effective after June 30, 1973, or on July 1, 1973, such amendment shall be deemed to have been enacted on June 30, 1973.”
Study of Civilian Aviation Training Programs
Pub. L. 102–325, title XIV, § 1410,July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 821, directed Secretary of Education to enter into appropriate arrangements with National Academy of Sciences Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education to study civilian aviation training programs needed to satisfy workforce requirements of commercial aviation industry in year 2000 and beyond, directed Secretary to request that National Academy of Sciences Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education submit an interim report to Secretary and Congress within 1 year after July 23, 1992, and directed that the study be completed within 2 years of July 23, 1992, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(b)(2),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3128.
National Commission on Independent Higher Education
Pub. L. 102–325, title XIV, part B, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 824, as amended by Pub. L. 103–208, § 2(k)(11),Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2486, provided that part B could be cited as the “National Independent Colleges and Universities Discovery Act”, provided for establishment, membership, etc., of National Commission on Independent Higher Education, which Commission was to develop factual base for understanding status of independent colleges and universities, their contributions to public priorities, and effects of national higher education policies on independent nonprofit sector, to review issuance of Federal regulations regarding independent colleges and universities, and suggest means by which independent colleges and universities can be held accountable for use of public resources without inappropriate intrusion into institutional autonomy, and to address the relationship between Federal and State policies in independent colleges and universities, particularly with respect to student access and choice, finance, institutional subsidies, and institutional accountability, and directed that the Commission terminate 3 years after July 23, 1992, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(b)(2),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3128.
National Commission on Cost of Higher Education
Pub. L. 102–325, title XIV, part C, July 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 827, as amended by Pub. L. 103–208, § 2(k)(12),Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2486, provided for establishment, membership, etc., of National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education, which Commission was to make findings and specific recommendations regarding the increase in tuition costs compared with other commodities and services as well as methods of reducing increased tuition costs, administrative costs of colleges and universities and methods of reducing such costs, the extent to which Federal, State, and local regulations contribute to increased tuition costs and the increase in the cost of higher education, and extent to which the lack of student financial assistance programs contribute to increased tuition costs, and directed that the Commission cease to exist on the date that is 90 days after the Commission submits its final report, which report was to be submitted to the President and Congress not later than Sept. 1, 1994, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(b)(2),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3128.
Education Council Act of 1991
Pub. L. 102–62, June 27, 1991, 105 Stat. 305, as amended by Pub. L. 102–359, § 1,Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 103–290, § 1,Aug. 1, 1994, 108 Stat. 1456; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, § 362,Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3975, provided for establishment, membership, etc., of National Education Commission on Time and Learning, which Commission was to examine the quality and adequacy of the study and learning time of elementary and secondary students in the United States, including issues regarding the length of the school day and year, the extent and role of homework, how time is being used for academic subjects, year-round professional opportunities for teachers, and use of school facilities for extended learning programs, report to Congress and the Secretary on the results of the study not later than 2 years after the Commission concludes its first meeting, and terminate Sept. 30, 1994, and provided for establishment, membership, etc., of National Council on Education Standards and Testing, which Council was to advise the American people whether suitable specific education standards should be established for the knowledge and skills that students should possess and that schools should impart in order that American student leave grades 4, 8, and 12 demonstrating competency in challenging subject matters and whether an appropriate system of voluntary national tests or examinations should be established to provide prompt and accurate information on the progress made towards specific education standards by individual students, schools, school systems, States, and the Nation as a whole, submit a final report, as soon as possible, but not later than Dec. 31, 1991, to Congress, Secretary of Education, and National Education Goals Panel, and cease to exist 90 days after submitting its final report.
National Commission on Responsibilities for Financing Postsecondary Education
Pub. L. 99–498, title XIII, § 1321,Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1584, as amended by Pub. L. 101–324, July 6, 1990, 104 Stat. 300; Pub. L. 102–170, title III, § 306,Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1136, established as an independent agency in executive branch a commission to be known as National Commission on Responsibilities for Financing Postsecondary Education, directed Commission to study and investigate extent to which (1) there is a consistent and coherent Federal policy regarding the appropriate family role in financing costs of postsecondary education for family members, (2) current Federal laws and regulations promote stated Federal policy, and (3) extent to which State laws which remove parental responsibilities for children over 18 years of age conflict with Federal policy in this area, directed Commission to (A) summarize appropriate findings of National Commission on Student Financial Assistance, (B) recommend to Congress a comprehensive analysis on extent to which consensus exists regarding appropriate role of family in financing postsecondary education, and (C) recommend changes in current law required to achieve desired Federal policy, and provided that Commission would terminate 2 years after first meeting of its member, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(a),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3127.
Study of Classroom Use of Volunteers
Pub. L. 99–498, title XIII, § 1341,Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1587, as amended by Pub. L. 100–50, § 23(7),June 3, 1987, 101 Stat. 362, directed National Academy of Sciences to conduct a thorough study of how volunteers could best be used in the classroom with the study to (1) feasibility of using recipients of student loans as part of repayment of such loans, (2) use of older Americans as such volunteers, (3) use of business persons and other professionals as volunteers, and (4) place of incentives to encourage volunteerism, and with National Academy of Sciences to prepare and submit to Congress a report, together with a description of programs on use of volunteers and with such recommendations as deemed appropriate not later than one year after entering into a contract to conduct the study, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–332, § 6(a),Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3127.
Native Hawaiian Education Study
Pub. L. 96–374, title XIII, § 1331,Oct. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 1499, established an Advisory Council on Native Hawaiian Education consisting of seven members appointed by Secretary of Education, after consultation with Governor of Hawaii, from among individuals who were professionals in various fields relating to human development, and who were familiar with educational problems of Native Hawaiians, to conduct a study to (A) evaluate effectiveness of State and federally assisted educational programs in serving Native Hawaiian children and extent to which such programs achieve their purposes with respect to such children, and (B) take into account special health, social, and psychological needs of Native Hawaiian children, and to submit a report to Secretary and to Congress not later than Jan. 31, 1983, containing findings and recommendations of the Council, with the Council to terminate 60 days after submission of its report.
Appropriations Not Authorized for Native Hawaiian Education Study for Fiscal Year 1982, 1983, or 1984
Pub. L. 97–35, title V, § 512(a),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 444, provided that: “No funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out part D of title XIII of the Education Amendments of 1980 [section 1331 ofPub. L. 96–374, set out as a note above] for fiscal year 1982, 1983, or 1984.”
Financing of Elementary and Secondary Education; Studies and Surveys; Advisory Panel; Reports
Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, § 1203,Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2335, as amended by Pub. L. 96–46, § 2(a)(4),Aug. 6, 1979, 93 Stat. 340; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, § 301(a)(2), (b)(1), title V, § 501(a), 507,Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 678, 689, 692, established a 15-member Advisory Panel on Financing Elementary and Secondary Education within Department of Education to provide for (1) availability of reliable and comparative data on status and trends in financing elementary and secondary education, (2) conduct of studies necessary to understand and analyze the trends and problems affecting financing of elementary and secondary education, both public and non-public, including prospects for adequate financing during the next ten years, and development of recommendations for Federal policies to assist in improving equity and efficiency of Federal and State systems for raising and distributing revenues to support elementary and secondary education, with views and recommendations of the Panel to be presented to 1980 White House Conference on Education.
White House Conference on Education: Report of Findings and Recommendations; National Conference Committee: Establishment, Membership, Report to President and Congress, Travel Expenses; Apportionment of Funds; Authorization of Appropriations
Pub. L. 93–380, title VIII, § 804,Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 597, as amended by Pub. L. 95–272, title III, § 301,May 3, 1978, 92 Stat. 227; Pub. L. 95–561, title XII, § 1203(c)(8),Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2335, directed President to call and conduct a White House Conference on Education in 1980, established a National Conference Committee to provide guidance and planning and to make a final report to President and Congress not later than Dec. 1, 1980, authorized making of grants to States to assist in meeting cost of that State’s participation, and authorized appropriations.