21 U.S. Code § 360eee–1 - Requirements

(a) In general
(1) Other activities
Each manufacturer, repackager, wholesale distributor, and dispenser shall comply with the requirements set forth in this section with respect to the role of such manufacturer, repackager, wholesale distributor, or dispenser in a transaction involving product. If an entity meets the definition of more than one of the entities listed in the preceding sentence, such entity shall comply with all applicable requirements in this section, but shall not be required to duplicate requirements.
(2) Initial standards
(A) In general
The Secretary shall, in consultation with other appropriate Federal officials, manufacturers, repackagers, wholesale distributors, dispensers, and other pharmaceutical distribution supply chain stakeholders, issue a draft guidance document that establishes standards for the interoperable exchange of transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statements, in paper or electronic format, for compliance with this subsection and subsections (b), (c), (d), and (e). In establishing such standards, the Secretary shall consider the feasibility of establishing standardized documentation to be used by members of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain to convey the transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement to the subsequent purchaser of a product and to facilitate the exchange of lot level data. The standards established under this paragraph shall take into consideration the standards established under section 355e of this title and shall comply with a form and format developed by a widely recognized international standards development organization.
(B) Public input
Prior to issuing the draft guidance under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall gather comments and information from stakeholders and maintain such comments and information in a public docket for at least 60 days prior to issuing such guidance.
(C) Publication
The Secretary shall publish the standards established under subparagraph (A) not later than 1 year after November 27, 2013.
(3) Waivers, exceptions, and exemptions
(A) In general
Not later than 2 years after November 27, 2013, the Secretary shall, by guidance—
(i) establish a process by which an authorized manufacturer, repackager, wholesale distributor, or dispenser may request a waiver from any of the requirements set forth in this section, which the Secretary may grant if the Secretary determines that such requirements would result in an undue economic hardship or for emergency medical reasons, including a public health emergency declaration pursuant to section 247d of title 42;
(ii) establish a process by which the Secretary determines exceptions, and a process through which a manufacturer or repackager may request such an exception, to the requirements relating to product identifiers if a product is packaged in a container too small or otherwise unable to accommodate a label with sufficient space to bear the information required for compliance with this section; and
(iii) establish a process by which the Secretary may determine other products or transactions that shall be exempt from the requirements of this section.
(B) Content
The guidance issued under subparagraph (A) shall include a process for the biennial review and renewal of such waivers, exceptions, and exemptions, as applicable.
(C) Process
In issuing the guidance under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide an effective date that is not later than 180 days prior to the date on which manufacturers are required to affix or imprint a product identifier to each package and homogenous case of product intended to be introduced in a transaction into commerce consistent with this section.
(4) Self-executing requirements
Except where otherwise specified, the requirements of this section may be enforced without further regulations or guidance from the Secretary.
(5) Grandfathering product
(A) Product identifier
Not later than 2 years after November 27, 2013, the Secretary shall finalize guidance specifying whether and under what circumstances product that is not labeled with a product identifier and that is in the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain at the time of the effective date of the requirements of this section shall be exempted from the requirements of this section.
(B) Tracing
For a product that entered the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain prior to January 1, 2015—
(i) authorized trading partners shall be exempt from providing transaction information as required under subsections (b)(1)(A)(i), (c)(1)(A)(ii), (d)(1)(A)(ii), and (e)(1)(A)(ii);
(ii) transaction history required under this section shall begin with the owner of such product on such date; and
(iii) the owners of such product on such date shall be exempt from asserting receipt of transaction information and transaction statement from the prior owner as required under this section.
(6) Wholesale distributor licenses
Notwithstanding section 360eee(9)(A) of this title, until the effective date of the wholesale distributor licensing regulations under section 360eee–2 of this title, the term “licensed” or “authorized”, as it relates to a wholesale distributor with respect to prescription drugs, shall mean a wholesale distributor with a valid license under State law.
(7) Third-party logistics provider licenses
Until the effective date of the third-party logistics provider licensing regulations under section 360eee–3 of this title, a third-party logistics provider shall be considered “licensed” under section 360eee(9)(B) of this title unless the Secretary has made a finding that the third-party logistics provider does not utilize good handling and distribution practices and publishes notice thereof.
(8) Label changes
Changes made to package labels solely to incorporate the product identifier may be submitted to the Secretary in the annual report of an establishment, in accordance with section 314.70(d) of chapter  [1] 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation).
(9) Product identifiers
With respect to any requirement relating to product identifiers under this part—
(A) unless the Secretary allows, through guidance, the use of other technologies for data instead of or in addition to the technologies described in clauses (i) and (ii), the applicable data—
(i) shall be included in a 2-dimensional data matrix barcode when affixed to, or imprinted upon, a package; and
(ii) shall be included in a linear or 2-dimensional data matrix barcode when affixed to, or imprinted upon, a homogeneous case; and
(B) verification of the product identifier may occur by using human-readable or machine-readable methods.
(b) Manufacturer requirements
(1) Product tracing
(A) In general
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a manufacturer shall—
(i) prior to, or at the time of, each transaction in which such manufacturer transfers ownership of a product, provide the subsequent owner with transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement, in a single document in an paper or electronic format; and
(ii) capture the transaction information (including lot level information), transaction history, and transaction statement for each transaction and maintain such information, history, and statement for not less than 6 years after the date of the transaction.
(B) Requests for information
Upon a request by the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, in the event of a recall or for the purpose of investigating a suspect product or an illegitimate product, a manufacturer shall, not later than 1 business day, and not to exceed 48 hours, after receiving the request, or in other such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, based on the circumstances of the request, provide the applicable transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement for the product.
(C) Electronic format
(i) In general Beginning not later than 4 years after November 27, 2013, except as provided under clause (ii), a manufacturer shall provide the transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement required under subparagraph (A)(i) in electronic format.
(ii) Exception A manufacturer may continue to provide the transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement required under subparagraph (A)(i) in a paper format to a licensed health care practitioner authorized to prescribe medication under State law or other licensed individual under the supervision or direction of such a practitioner who dispenses product in the usual course of professional practice.
(2) Product identifier
(A) In general
Beginning not later than 4 years after November 27, 2013, a manufacturer shall affix or imprint a product identifier to each package and homogenous case of a product intended to be introduced in a transaction into commerce. Such manufacturer shall maintain the product identifier information for such product for not less than 6 years after the date of the transaction.
(B) Exception
A package that is required to have a standardized numerical identifier is not required to have a unique device identifier.
(3) Authorized trading partners
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, the trading partners of a manufacturer may be only authorized trading partners.
(4) Verification
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a manufacturer shall have systems in place to enable the manufacturer to comply with the following requirements:
(A) Suspect product
(i) In general Upon making a determination that a product in the possession or control of the manufacturer is a suspect product, or upon receiving a request for verification from the Secretary that has made a determination that a product within the possession or control of a manufacturer is a suspect product, a manufacturer shall—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the manufacturer from product intended for distribution until such product is cleared or dispositioned; and
(II) promptly conduct an investigation in coordination with trading partners, as applicable, to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, which shall include validating any applicable transaction history and transaction information in the possession of the manufacturer and otherwise investigating to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, and, beginning 4 years after November 27, 2013, verifying the product at the package level, including the standardized numerical identifier.
(ii) Cleared product If the manufacturer makes the determination that a suspect product is not an illegitimate product, the manufacturer shall promptly notify the Secretary, if applicable, of such determination and such product may be further distributed.
(iii) Records A manufacturer shall keep records of the investigation of a suspect product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the investigation.
(B) Illegitimate product
(i) In general Upon determining that a product in the possession or control of a manufacturer is an illegitimate product, the manufacturer shall, in a manner consistent with the systems and processes of such manufacturer—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the manufacturer from product intended for distribution until such product is dispositioned;
(II) disposition the illegitimate product within the possession or control of the manufacturer;
(III) take reasonable and appropriate steps to assist a trading partner to disposition an illegitimate product not in the possession or control of the manufacturer; and
(IV) retain a sample of the product for further physical examination or laboratory analysis of the product by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) upon request by the Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official), as necessary and appropriate.
(ii) Making a notification
(I) Illegitimate product Upon determining that a product in the possession or control of the manufacturer is an illegitimate product, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary and all immediate trading partners that the manufacturer has reason to believe may have received such illegitimate product of such determination not later than 24 hours after making such determination.
(II) High risk of illegitimacy A manufacturer shall notify the Secretary and immediate trading partners that the manufacturer has reason to believe may have in the trading partner’s possession a product manufactured by, or purported to be a product manufactured by, the manufacturer not later than 24 hours after determining or being notified by the Secretary or a trading partner that there is a high risk that such product is an illegitimate product. For purposes of this subclause, a “high risk” may include a specific high risk that could increase the likelihood that illegitimate product will enter the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain and other high risks as determined by the Secretary in guidance pursuant to subsection (h).
(iii) Responding to a notification Upon the receipt of a notification from the Secretary or a trading partner that a determination has been made that a product is an illegitimate product, a manufacturer shall identify all illegitimate product subject to such notification that is in the possession or control of the manufacturer, including any product that is subsequently received, and shall perform the activities described in subparagraph (A).
(iv) Terminating a notification Upon making a determination, in consultation with the Secretary, that a notification is no longer necessary, a manufacturer shall promptly notify immediate trading partners that the manufacturer notified pursuant to clause (ii) that such notification has been terminated.
(v) Records A manufacturer shall keep records of the disposition of an illegitimate product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the disposition.
(C) Requests for verification
Beginning 4 years after November 27, 2013, upon receiving a request for verification from an authorized repackager, wholesale distributor, or dispenser that is in possession or control of a product such person believes to be manufactured by such manufacturer, a manufacturer shall, not later than 24 hours after receiving the request for verification or in other such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, based on the circumstances of the request, notify the person making the request whether the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, that is the subject of the request corresponds to the product identifier affixed or imprinted by the manufacturer. If a manufacturer responding to a request for verification identifies a product identifier that does not correspond to that affixed or imprinted by the manufacturer, the manufacturer shall treat such product as suspect product and conduct an investigation as described in subparagraph (A). If the manufacturer has reason to believe the product is an illegitimate product, the manufacturer shall advise the person making the request of such belief at the time such manufacturer responds to the request for verification.
(D) Electronic database
A manufacturer may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph by developing a secure electronic database or utilizing a secure electronic database developed or operated by another entity. The owner of such database shall establish the requirements and processes to respond to requests and may provide for data access to other members of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain, as appropriate. The development and operation of such a database shall not relieve a manufacturer of the requirement under this paragraph to respond to a request for verification submitted by means other than a secure electronic database.
(E) Saleable returned product
Beginning 4 years after November 27, 2013 (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)), upon receipt of a returned product that the manufacturer intends to further distribute, before further distributing such product, the manufacturer shall verify the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, for each sealed homogeneous case of such product or, if such product is not in a sealed homogeneous case, verify the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, on each package.
(F) Nonsaleable returned product
A manufacturer may return a nonsaleable product to the manufacturer or repackager, to the wholesale distributor from whom such product was purchased, or to a person acting on behalf of such a person, including a returns processor, without providing the information described in paragraph (1)(A)(i).
(c) Wholesale distributor requirements
(1) Product tracing
(A) In general
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, the following requirements shall apply to wholesale distributors:
(i) A wholesale distributor shall not accept ownership of a product unless the previous owner prior to, or at the time of, the transaction provides the transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement for the product, as applicable under this subparagraph.
(ii)
(I)
(aa) If the wholesale distributor purchased a product directly from the manufacturer, the exclusive distributor of the manufacturer, or a repackager that purchased directly from the manufacturer, then prior to, or at the time of, each transaction in which the wholesale distributor transfers ownership of a product, the wholesale distributor shall provide to the subsequent purchaser—
(AA) a transaction statement, which shall state that such wholesale distributor, or a member of the affiliate of such wholesale distributor, purchased the product directly from the manufacturer, exclusive distributor of the manufacturer, or repackager that purchased the product directly from the manufacturer; and
(BB) subject to subclause (II), the transaction history and transaction information.
(bb) The wholesale distributor shall provide the transaction history, transaction information, and transaction statement under item (aa)—
(AA) if provided to a dispenser, on a single document in a paper or electronic format; and
(BB) if provided to a wholesale distributor, through any combination of self-generated paper, electronic data, or manufacturer-provided information on the product package.
(II) For purposes of transactions described in subclause (I), transaction history and transaction information shall not be required to include the lot number of the product, the initial transaction date, or the initial shipment date from the manufacturer (as defined in subparagraphs (F), (G), and (H) of section 360eee(26) of this title).
(iii) If the wholesale distributor did not purchase a product directly from the manufacturer, the exclusive distributor of the manufacturer, or a repackager that purchased directly from the manufacturer, as described in clause (ii), then prior to, or at the time of, each transaction or subsequent transaction, the wholesale distributor shall provide to the subsequent purchaser a transaction statement, transaction history, and transaction information, in a paper or electronic format that complies with the guidance document issued under subsection (a)(2).
(iv) For the purposes of clause (iii), the transaction history supplied shall begin only with the wholesale distributor described in clause (ii)(I), but the wholesale distributor described in clause (iii) shall inform the subsequent purchaser that such wholesale distributor received a direct purchase statement from a wholesale distributor described in clause (ii)(I).
(v) A wholesale distributor shall—
(I) capture the transaction information (including lot level information) consistent with the requirements of this section, transaction history, and transaction statement for each transaction described in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) and maintain such information, history, and statement for not less than 6 years after the date of the transaction; and
(II) maintain the confidentiality of the transaction information (including any lot level information consistent with the requirements of this section), transaction history, and transaction statement for a product in a manner that prohibits disclosure to any person other than the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, except to comply with clauses (ii) and (iii), and, as applicable, pursuant to an agreement under subparagraph (D).
(B) Returns
(i) Saleable returns Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(i), the following shall apply:
(I) Requirements Until the date that is 6 years after November 27, 2013 (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)), a wholesale distributor may accept returned product from a dispenser or repackager pursuant to the terms and conditions of any agreement between the parties, and, notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(ii), may distribute such returned product without providing the transaction history. For transactions subsequent to the return, the transaction history of such product shall begin with the wholesale distributor that accepted the returned product, consistent with the requirements of this subsection.
(II) Enhanced requirements Beginning 6 years after November 27, 2013 (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)), a wholesale distributor may accept returned product from a dispenser or repackager only if the wholesale distributor can associate returned product with the transaction information and transaction statement associated with that product. For all transactions after such date, the transaction history, as applicable, of such product shall begin with the wholesale distributor that accepted and verified the returned product. For purposes of this subparagraph, the transaction information and transaction history, as applicable, need not include transaction dates if it is not reasonably practicable to obtain such dates.
(ii) Nonsaleable returns A wholesale distributor may return a nonsaleable product to the manufacturer or repackager, to the wholesale distributor from whom such product was purchased, or to a person acting on behalf of such a person, including a returns processor, without providing the information required under subparagraph (A)(i).
(C) Requests for information
Upon a request by the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, in the event of a recall or for the purpose of investigating a suspect product or an illegitimate product, a wholesale distributor shall, not later than 1 business day, and not to exceed 48 hours, after receiving the request or in other such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, based on the circumstances of the request, provide the applicable transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement for the product.
(D) Trading partner agreements
Beginning 6 years after November 27, 2013, a wholesale distributor may disclose the transaction information, including lot level information, transaction history, or transaction statement of a product to the subsequent purchaser of the product, pursuant to a written agreement between such wholesale distributor and such subsequent purchaser. Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to limit the applicability of subparagraphs (A) through (C).
(2) Product identifier
Beginning 6 years after November 27, 2013, a wholesale distributor may engage in transactions involving a product only if such product is encoded with a product identifier (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)).
(3) Authorized trading partners
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, the trading partners of a wholesale distributor may be only authorized trading partners.
(4) Verification
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a wholesale distributor shall have systems in place to enable the wholesale distributor to comply with the following requirements:
(A) Suspect product
(i) In general Upon making a determination that a product in the possession or control of a wholesale distributor is a suspect product, or upon receiving a request for verification from the Secretary that has made a determination that a product within the possession or control of a wholesale distributor is a suspect product, a wholesale distributor shall—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the wholesale distributor from product intended for distribution until such product is cleared or dispositioned; and
(II) promptly conduct an investigation in coordination with trading partners, as applicable, to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, which shall include validating any applicable transaction history and transaction information in the possession of the wholesale distributor and otherwise investigating to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, and, beginning 6 years after November 27, 2013 (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)), verifying the product at the package level, including the standardized numerical identifier.
(ii) Cleared product If the wholesale distributor determines that a suspect product is not an illegitimate product, the wholesale distributor shall promptly notify the Secretary, if applicable, of such determination and such product may be further distributed.
(iii) Records A wholesale distributor shall keep records of the investigation of a suspect product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the investigation.
(B) Illegitimate product
(i) In general Upon determining, in coordination with the manufacturer, that a product in the possession or control of a wholesale distributor is an illegitimate product, the wholesale distributor shall, in a manner that is consistent with the systems and processes of such wholesale distributor—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the wholesale distributor from product intended for distribution until such product is dispositioned;
(II) disposition the illegitimate product within the possession or control of the wholesale distributor;
(III) take reasonable and appropriate steps to assist a trading partner to disposition an illegitimate product not in the possession or control of the wholesale distributor; and
(IV) retain a sample of the product for further physical examination or laboratory analysis of the product by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) upon request by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official), as necessary and appropriate.
(ii) Making a notification Upon determining that a product in the possession or control of the wholesale distributor is an illegitimate product, the wholesale distributor shall notify the Secretary and all immediate trading partners that the wholesale distributor has reason to believe may have received such illegitimate product of such determination not later than 24 hours after making such determination.
(iii) Responding to a notification Upon the receipt of a notification from the Secretary or a trading partner that a determination has been made that a product is an illegitimate product, a wholesale distributor shall identify all illegitimate product subject to such notification that is in the possession or control of the wholesale distributor, including any product that is subsequently received, and shall perform the activities described in subparagraph (A).
(iv) Terminating a notification Upon making a determination, in consultation with the Secretary, that a notification is no longer necessary, a wholesale distributor shall promptly notify immediate trading partners that the wholesale distributor notified pursuant to clause (ii) that such notification has been terminated.
(v) Records A wholesale distributor shall keep records of the disposition of an illegitimate product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the disposition.
(C) Electronic database
A wholesale distributor may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph by developing a secure electronic database or utilizing a secure electronic database developed or operated by another entity. The owner of such database shall establish the requirements and processes to respond to requests and may provide for data access to other members of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain, as appropriate. The development and operation of such a database shall not relieve a wholesale distributor of the requirement under this paragraph to respond to a verification request submitted by means other than a secure electronic database.
(D) Verification of saleable returned product
Beginning 6 years after November 27, 2013, upon receipt of a returned product that the wholesale distributor intends to further distribute, before further distributing such product, the wholesale distributor shall verify the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, for each sealed homogeneous case of such product or, if such product is not in a sealed homogeneous case, verify the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, on each package.
(d) Dispenser requirements
(1) Product tracing
(A) In general
Beginning July 1, 2015, a dispenser—
(i) shall not accept ownership of a product, unless the previous owner prior to, or at the time of, the transaction, provides transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement;
(ii) prior to, or at the time of, each transaction in which the dispenser transfers ownership of a product (but not including dispensing to a patient or returns) shall provide the subsequent owner with transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement for the product, except that the requirements of this clause shall not apply to sales by a dispenser to another dispenser to fulfill a specific patient need; and
(iii) shall capture transaction information (including lot level information, if provided), transaction history, and transaction statements, as necessary to investigate a suspect product, and maintain such information, history, and statements for not less than 6 years after the transaction.
(B) Agreements with third parties
A dispenser may enter into a written agreement with a third party, including an authorized wholesale distributor, under which the third party confidentially maintains the transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statements required to be maintained under this subsection on behalf of the dispenser. If a dispenser enters into such an agreement, the dispenser shall maintain a copy of the written agreement and shall not be relieved of the obligations of the dispenser under this subsection.
(C) Returns
(i) Saleable returns A dispenser may return product to the trading partner from which the dispenser obtained the product without providing the information required under subparagraph (A).
(ii) Nonsaleable returns A dispenser may return a nonsaleable product to the manufacturer or repackager, to the wholesale distributor from whom such product was purchased, to a returns processor, or to a person acting on behalf of such a person without providing the information required under subparagraph (A).
(D) Requests for information
Upon a request by the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, in the event of a recall or for the purpose of investigating a suspect or an illegitimate product, a dispenser shall, not later than 2 business days after receiving the request or in another such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, based on the circumstances of the request, provide the applicable transaction information, transaction statement, and transaction history which the dispenser received from the previous owner, which shall not include the lot number of the product, the initial transaction date, or the initial shipment date from the manufacturer unless such information was included in the transaction information, transaction statement, and transaction history provided by the manufacturer or wholesale distributor to the dispenser. The dispenser may respond to the request by providing the applicable information in either paper or electronic format. Until the date that is 4 years after November 27, 2013, the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official shall grant a dispenser additional time, as necessary, only with respect to a request to provide lot level information described in subparagraph (F) of section 360eee(26) of this title that was provided to the dispenser in paper format, limit the request time period to the 6 months preceding the request or other relevant date, and, in the event of a recall, the Secretary, or other appropriate Federal or State official may request information only if such recall involves a serious adverse health consequence or death to humans.
(2) Product identifier
Beginning not later than 7 years after November 27, 2013, a dispenser may engage in transactions involving a product only if such product is encoded with a product identifier (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)).
(3) Authorized trading partners
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, the trading partners of a dispenser may be only authorized trading partners.
(4) Verification
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a dispenser shall have systems in place to enable the dispenser to comply with the following requirements:
(A) Suspect product
(i) In general Upon making a determination that a product in the possession or control of the dispenser is a suspect product, or upon receiving a request for verification from the Secretary that has made a determination that a product within the possession or control of a dispenser is a suspect product, a dispenser shall—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the dispenser from product intended for distribution until such product is cleared or dispositioned; and
(II) promptly conduct an investigation in coordination with trading partners, as applicable, to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product.
(ii) Investigation An investigation conducted under clause (i)(II) shall include—
(I) beginning 7 years after November 27, 2013, verifying whether the lot number of a suspect product corresponds with the lot number for such product;
(II) beginning 7 years after November 27, 2013, verifying that the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, of at least 3 packages or 10 percent of such suspect product, whichever is greater, or all packages, if there are fewer than 3, corresponds with the product identifier for such product;
(III) validating any applicable transaction history and transaction information in the possession of the dispenser; and
(IV) otherwise investigating to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product.
(iii) Cleared product If the dispenser makes the determination that a suspect product is not an illegitimate product, the dispenser shall promptly notify the Secretary, if applicable, of such determination and such product may be further distributed or dispensed.
(iv) Records A dispenser shall keep records of the investigation of a suspect product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the investigation.
(B) Illegitimate product
(i) In general Upon determining, in coordination with the manufacturer, that a product in the possession or control of a dispenser is an illegitimate product, the dispenser shall—
(I) disposition the illegitimate product within the possession or control of the dispenser;
(II) take reasonable and appropriate steps to assist a trading partner to disposition an illegitimate product not in the possession or control of the dispenser; and
(III) retain a sample of the product for further physical examination or laboratory analysis of the product by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) upon request by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official), as necessary and appropriate.
(ii) Making a notification Upon determining that a product in the possession or control of the dispenser is an illegitimate product, the dispenser shall notify the Secretary and all immediate trading partners that the dispenser has reason to believe may have received such illegitimate product of such determination not later than 24 hours after making such determination.
(iii) Responding to a notification Upon the receipt of a notification from the Secretary or a trading partner that a determination has been made that a product is an illegitimate product, a dispenser shall identify all illegitimate product subject to such notification that is in the possession or control of the dispenser, including any product that is subsequently received, and shall perform the activities described in subparagraph (A).
(iv) Terminating a notification Upon making a determination, in consultation with the Secretary, that a notification is no longer necessary, a dispenser shall promptly notify immediate trading partners that the dispenser notified pursuant to clause (ii) that such notification has been terminated.
(v) Records A dispenser shall keep records of the disposition of an illegitimate product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the disposition.
(C) Electronic database
A dispenser may satisfy the requirements of this paragraph by developing a secure electronic database or utilizing a secure electronic database developed or operated by another entity.
(5) Exception
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the requirements under paragraphs (1) and (4) shall not apply to licensed health care practitioners authorized to prescribe or administer medication under State law or other licensed individuals under the supervision or direction of such practitioners who dispense or administer product in the usual course of professional practice.
(e) Repackager requirements
(1) Product tracing
(A) In general
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a repackager described in section 360eee(16)(A) of this title shall—
(i) not accept ownership of a product unless the previous owner, prior to, or at the time of, the transaction, provides transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement for the product;
(ii) prior to, or at the time of, each transaction in which the repackager transfers ownership of a product, provide the subsequent owner with transaction history, transaction information, and a transaction statement for the product; and
(iii) capture the transaction information (including lot level information), transaction history, and transaction statement for each transaction described in clauses (i) and (ii) and maintain such information, history, and statement for not less than 6 years after the transaction.
(B) Returns
(i) Nonsaleable product A repackager described in section 360eee(16)(A) of this title may return a nonsaleable product to the manufacturer or repackager, or to the wholesale distributor from whom such product was purchased, or to a person acting on behalf of such a person, including a returns processor, without providing the information required under subparagraph (A)(ii).
(ii) Saleable or nonsaleable product A repackager described in section 360eee(16)(B) of this title may return a saleable or nonsaleable product to the manufacturer, repackager, or to the wholesale distributor from whom such product was received without providing the information required under subparagraph (A)(ii) on behalf of the hospital or other health care entity that took ownership of such product pursuant to the terms and conditions of any agreement between such repackager and the entity that owns the product.
(C) Requests for information
Upon a request by the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, in the event of a recall or for the purpose of investigating a suspect product or an illegitimate product, a repackager described in section 360eee(16)(A) of this title shall, not later than 1 business day, and not to exceed 48 hours, after receiving the request or in other such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, provide the applicable transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement for the product.
(2) Product identifier
(A) In general
Beginning not later than 5 years after November 27, 2013, a repackager described in section 360eee(16)(A) of this title—
(i) shall affix or imprint a product identifier to each package and homogenous case of product intended to be introduced in a transaction in commerce;
(ii) shall maintain the product identifier information for such product for not less than 6 years after the date of the transaction;
(iii) may engage in transactions involving a product only if such product is encoded with a product identifier (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)); and
(iv) shall maintain records for not less than 6 years to allow the repackager to associate the product identifier the repackager affixes or imprints with the product identifier assigned by the original manufacturer of the product.
(B) Exception
A package that is required to have a standardized numerical identifier is not required to have a unique device identifier.
(3) Authorized trading partners
Beginning January 1, 2015, the trading partners of a repackager described in section 360eee(16) of this title may be only authorized trading partners.
(4) Verification
Beginning not later than January 1, 2015, a repackager described in section 360eee(16)(A) of this title shall have systems in place to enable the repackager to comply with the following requirements:
(A) Suspect product
(i) In general Upon making a determination that a product in the possession or control of the repackager is a suspect product, or upon receiving a request for verification from the Secretary that has made a determination that a product within the possession or control of a repackager is a suspect product, a repackager shall—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the repackager from product intended for distribution until such product is cleared or dispositioned; and
(II) promptly conduct an investigation in coordination with trading partners, as applicable, to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, which shall include validating any applicable transaction history and transaction information in the possession of the repackager and otherwise investigating to determine whether the product is an illegitimate product, and, beginning 5 years after November 27, 2013 (except as provided pursuant to subsection (a)(5)), verifying the product at the package level, including the standardized numerical identifier.
(ii) Cleared product If the repackager makes the determination that a suspect product is not an illegitimate product, the repackager shall promptly notify the Secretary, if applicable, of such determination and such product may be further distributed.
(iii) Records A repackager shall keep records of the investigation of a suspect product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the investigation.
(B) Illegitimate product
(i) In general Upon determining, in coordination with the manufacturer, that a product in the possession or control of a repackager is an illegitimate product, the repackager shall, in a manner that is consistent with the systems and processes of such repackager—
(I) quarantine such product within the possession or control of the repackager from product intended for distribution until such product is dispositioned;
(II) disposition the illegitimate product within the possession or control of the repackager;
(III) take reasonable and appropriate steps to assist a trading partner to disposition an illegitimate product not in the possession or control of the repackager; and
(IV) retain a sample of the product for further physical examination or laboratory analysis of the product by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) upon request by the manufacturer or Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official), as necessary and appropriate.
(ii) Making a notification Upon determining that a product in the possession or control of the repackager is an illegitimate product, the repackager shall notify the Secretary and all immediate trading partners that the repackager has reason to believe may have received the illegitimate product of such determination not later than 24 hours after making such determination.
(iii) Responding to a notification Upon the receipt of a notification from the Secretary or a trading partner, a repackager shall identify all illegitimate product subject to such notification that is in the possession or control of the repackager, including any product that is subsequently received, and shall perform the activities described in subparagraph (A).
(iv) Terminating a notification Upon making a determination, in consultation with the Secretary, that a notification is no longer necessary, a repackager shall promptly notify immediate trading partners that the repackager notified pursuant to clause (ii) that such notification has been terminated.
(v) Records A repackager shall keep records of the disposition of an illegitimate product for not less than 6 years after the conclusion of the disposition.
(C) Requests for verification
Beginning 5 years after November 27, 2013, upon receiving a request for verification from an authorized manufacturer, wholesale distributor, or dispenser that is in possession or control of a product they believe to be repackaged by such repackager, a repackager shall, not later than 24 hours after receiving the verification request or in other such reasonable time as determined by the Secretary, based on the circumstances of the request, notify the person making the request whether the product identifier, including the standardized numerical identifier, that is the subject of the request corresponds to the product identifier affixed or imprinted by the repackager. If a repackager responding to a verification request identifies a product identifier that does not correspond to that affixed or imprinted by the repackager, the repackager shall treat such product as suspect product and conduct an investigation as described in subparagraph (A). If the repackager has reason to believe the product is an illegitimate product, the repackager shall advise the person making the request of such belief at the time such repackager responds to the verification request.
(D) Electronic database
A repackager may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (4) by developing a secure electronic database or utilizing a secure electronic database developed or operated by another entity. The owner of such database shall establish the requirements and processes to respond to requests and may provide for data access to other members of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain, as appropriate. The development and operation of such a database shall not relieve a repackager of the requirement under subparagraph (C) to respond to a verification request submitted by means other than a secure electronic database.
(E) Verification of saleable returned product
Beginning 5 years after November 27, 2013, upon receipt of a returned product that the repackager intends to further distribute, before further distributing such product, the repackager shall verify the product identifier for each sealed homogeneous case of such product or, if such product is not in a sealed homogeneous case, verify the product identifier on each package.
(f) Drop shipments
(1) In general
A wholesale distributor that does not physically handle or store product shall be exempt from the provisions of this section, except the notification requirements under clauses (ii), (iii), and (iv) of subsection (c)(4)(B), provided that the manufacturer, repackager, or other wholesale distributor that distributes the product to the dispenser by means of a drop shipment for such wholesale distributor includes on the transaction information and transaction history to the dispenser the contact information of such wholesale distributor and provides the transaction information, transaction history, and transaction statement directly to the dispenser.
(2) Clarification
For purposes of this subsection, providing administrative services, including processing of orders and payments, shall not by itself, be construed as being involved in the handling, distribution, or storage of a product.
(g) Enhanced drug distribution security
(1) In general
On the date that is 10 years after November 27, 2013, the following interoperable, electronic tracing of product at the package level requirements shall go into effect:
(A) The transaction information and the transaction statements as required under this section shall be exchanged in a secure, interoperable, electronic manner in accordance with the standards established under the guidance issued pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (h), including any revision of such guidance issued in accordance with paragraph (5) of such subsection.
(B) The transaction information required under this section shall include the product identifier at the package level for each package included in the transaction.
(C) Systems and processes for verification of product at the package level, including the standardized numerical identifier, shall be required in accordance with the standards established under the guidance issued pursuant to subsection (a)(2) and the guidances issued pursuant to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (h), including any revision of such guidances issued in accordance with paragraph (5) of such subsection, which may include the use of aggregation and inference as necessary.
(D) The systems and processes necessary to promptly respond with the transaction information and transaction statement for a product upon a request by the Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) in the event of a recall or for the purposes of investigating a suspect product or an illegitimate product shall be required.
(E) The systems and processes necessary to promptly facilitate gathering the information necessary to produce the transaction information for each transaction going back to the manufacturer, as applicable, shall be required—
(i) in the event of a request by the Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official), on account of a recall or for the purposes of investigating a suspect product or an illegitimate product; or
(ii) in the event of a request by an authorized trading partner, in a secure manner that ensures the protection of confidential commercial information and trade secrets, for purposes of investigating a suspect product or assisting the Secretary (or other appropriate Federal or State official) with a request described in clause (i).
(F) Each person accepting a saleable return shall have systems and processes in place to allow acceptance of such product and may accept saleable returns only if such person can associate the saleable return product with the transaction information and transaction statement associated with that product.
(2) Compliance
(A) Information maintenance agreement
A dispenser may enter into a written agreement with a third party, including an authorized wholesale distributor, under which the third party shall confidentially maintain any information and statements required to be maintained under this section. If a dispenser enters into such an agreement, the dispenser shall maintain a copy of the written agreement and shall not be relieved of the obligations of the dispenser under this subsection.
(B) Alternative methods
The Secretary, taking into consideration the assessment conducted under paragraph (3), shall provide for alternative methods of compliance with any of the requirements set forth in paragraph (1), including—
(i) establishing timelines for compliance by small businesses (including small business dispensers with 25 or fewer full-time employees) with such requirements, in order to ensure that such requirements do not impose undue economic hardship for small businesses, including small business dispensers for whom the criteria set forth in the assessment under paragraph (3) is not met, if the Secretary determines that such requirements under paragraph (1) would result in undue economic hardship; and
(ii) establishing a process by which a dispenser may request a waiver from any of the requirements set forth in paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that such requirements would result in an undue economic hardship, which shall include a process for the biennial review and renewal of any such waiver.
(3) Assessment
(A) In general
Not later than the date that is 18 months after the Secretary issues the final guidance required under subsection (h), the Secretary shall enter into a contract with a private, independent consulting firm with expertise to conduct a technology and software assessment that looks at the feasibility of dispensers with 25 or fewer full-time employees conducting interoperable, electronic tracing of products at the package level. Such assessment shall be completed not later than 81/2 years after November 27, 2013.
(B) Condition
As a condition of the award of the contract under subparagraph (A), the private, independent consulting firm shall agree to consult with dispensers with 25 or fewer full-time employees when conducting the assessment under such subparagraph.
(C) Content
The assessment under subparagraph (A) shall assess whether—
(i) the necessary software and hardware is readily accessible to such dispensers;
(ii) the necessary software and hardware is prohibitively expensive to obtain, install, and maintain for such dispensers; and
(iii) the necessary hardware and software can be integrated into business practices, such as interoperability with wholesale distributors, for such dispensers.
(D) Publication
The Secretary shall—
(i) publish the statement of work for the assessment under subparagraph (A) for public comment prior to beginning the assessment;
(ii) publish the final assessment for public comment not later than 30 calendar days after receiving such assessment; and
(iii) hold a public meeting not later than 180 calendar days after receiving the final assessment at which public stakeholders may present their views on the assessment.
(4) Procedure
Notwithstanding section 553 of title 5, the Secretary, in promulgating any regulation pursuant to this section, shall—
(A) provide appropriate flexibility by—
(i) not requiring the adoption of specific business systems for the maintenance and transmission of data;
(ii) prescribing alternative methods of compliance for any of the requirements set forth in paragraph (1) or set forth in regulations implementing such requirements, including—
(I) timelines for small businesses to comply with the requirements set forth in the regulations in order to ensure that such requirements do not impose undue economic hardship for small businesses (including small business dispensers for whom the criteria set forth in the assessment under paragraph (3) is not met), if the Secretary determines that such requirements would result in undue economic hardship; and
(II) the establishment of a process by which a dispenser may request a waiver from any of the requirements set forth in such regulations if the Secretary determines that such requirements would result in an undue economic hardship; and
(iii) taking into consideration—
(I) the results of pilot projects, including pilot projects pursuant to this section and private sector pilot projects, including those involving the use of aggregation and inference;
(II) the public meetings held and related guidance documents issued under this section;
(III) the public health benefits of any additional regulations in comparison to the cost of compliance with such requirements, including on entities of varying sizes and capabilities;
(IV) the diversity of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain by providing appropriate flexibility for each sector, including both large and small businesses; and
(V) the assessment pursuant to paragraph (3) with respect to small business dispensers, including related public comment and the public meeting, and requirements under this section;
(B) issue a notice of proposed rulemaking that includes a copy of the proposed regulation;
(C) provide a period of not less than 60 days for comments on the proposed regulation; and
(D) publish in the Federal Register the final regulation not less than 2 years prior to the effective date of the regulation.
(h) Guidance documents
(1) In general
For the purposes of facilitating the successful and efficient adoption of secure, interoperable product tracing at the package level in order to enhance drug distribution security and further protect the public health, the Secretary shall issue the guidance documents as provided for in this subsection.
(2) Suspect and illegitimate product
(A) In general
Not later than 180 days after November 27, 2013, the Secretary shall issue a guidance document to aid trading partners in the identification of a suspect product and notification termination. Such guidance document shall—
(i) identify specific scenarios that could significantly increase the risk of a suspect product entering the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain;
(ii) provide recommendation on how trading partners may identify such product and make a determination on whether the product is a suspect product as soon as practicable; and
(iii) set forth the process by which manufacturers, repackagers, wholesale distributors, and dispensers shall terminate notifications in consultation with the Secretary regarding illegitimate product pursuant to subsections (b)(4)(B), (c)(4)(B), (d)(4)(B), and (e)(4)(B).
(B) Revised guidance
If the Secretary revises the guidance issued under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall follow the procedure set forth in paragraph (5).
(3) Unit level tracing
(A) In general
In order to enhance drug distribution security at the package level, not later than 18 months after conducting a public meeting on the system attributes necessary to enable secure tracing of product at the package level, including allowing for the use of verification, inference, and aggregation, as necessary, the Secretary shall issue a final guidance document that outlines and makes recommendations with respect to the system attributes necessary to enable secure tracing at the package level as required under the requirements established under subsection (g). Such guidance document shall—
(i) define the circumstances under which the sectors within the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain may, in the most efficient manner practicable, infer the contents of a case, pallet, tote, or other aggregate of individual packages or containers of product, from a product identifier associated with the case, pallet, tote, or other aggregate, without opening each case, pallet, tote, or other aggregate or otherwise individually scanning each package;
(ii) identify methods and processes to enhance secure tracing of product at the package level, such as secure processes to facilitate the use of inference, enhanced verification activities, the use of aggregation and inference, processes that utilize the product identifiers to enhance tracing of product at the package level, including the standardized numerical identifier, or package security features; and
(iii) ensure the protection of confidential commercial information and trade secrets.
(B) Procedure
In issuing the guidance under subparagraph (A), and in revising such guidance, if applicable, the Secretary shall follow the procedure set forth in paragraph (5).
(4) Standards for interoperable data exchange
(A) In general
In order to enhance secure tracing of a product at the package level, the Secretary, not later than 18 months after conducting a public meeting on the interoperable standards necessary to enhance the security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain, shall update the guidance issued pursuant to subsection (a)(2), as necessary and appropriate, and finalize such guidance document so that the guidance document—
(i) identifies and makes recommendations with respect to the standards necessary for adoption in order to support the secure, interoperable electronic data exchange among the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain that comply with a form and format developed by a widely recognized international standards development organization;
(ii) takes into consideration standards established pursuant to subsection (a)(2) andsection 355e of this title;
(iii) facilitates the creation of a uniform process or methodology for product tracing; and
(iv) ensures the protection of confidential commercial information and trade secrets.
(B) Procedure
In issuing the guidance under subparagraph (A), and in revising such guidance, if applicable, the Secretary shall follow the procedure set forth in paragraph (5).
(5) Procedure
In issuing or revising any guidance issued pursuant to this subsection or subsection (g), except the initial guidance issued under paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary shall—
(A) publish a notice in the Federal Register for a period not less than 30 days announcing that the draft or revised draft guidance is available;
(B) post the draft guidance document on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration and make such draft guidance document available in hard copy;
(C) provide an opportunity for comment and review and take into consideration any comments received;
(D) revise the draft guidance, as appropriate;
(E) publish a notice in the Federal Register for a period not less than 30 days announcing that the final guidance or final revised guidance is available;
(F) post the final guidance document on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration and make such final guidance document available in hard copy; and
(G) provide for an effective date of not earlier than 1 year after such guidance becomes final.
(i) Public meetings
(1) In general
The Secretary shall hold not less than 5 public meetings to enhance the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain and provide for comment. The Secretary may hold the first such public meeting not earlier than 1 year after November 27, 2013. In carrying out the public meetings described in this paragraph, the Secretary shall—
(A) prioritize topics necessary to inform the issuance of the guidance described in paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (h); and
(B) take all measures reasonable and practicable to ensure the protection of confidential commercial information and trade secrets.
(2) Content
Each of the following topics shall be addressed in at least one of the public meetings described in paragraph (1):
(A) An assessment of the steps taken under subsections (b) through (e) to build capacity for a unit-level system, including the impact of the requirements of such subsections on—
(i) the ability of the health care system collectively to maintain patient access to medicines;
(ii) the scalability of such requirements, including as it relates to product lines; and
(iii) the capability of different sectors and subsectors, including both large and small businesses, to affix and utilize the product identifier.
(B) The system attributes necessary to support the requirements set forth under subsection (g), including the standards necessary for adoption in order to support the secure, interoperable electronic data exchange among sectors within the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain.
(C) Best practices in each of the different sectors within the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain to implement the requirements of this section.
(D) The costs and benefits of the implementation of this section, including the impact on each pharmaceutical distribution supply chain sector and on public health.
(E) Whether electronic tracing requirements, including tracing of product at the package level, are feasible, cost effective, and needed to protect the public health.
(F) The systems and processes needed to utilize the product identifiers to enhance tracing of product at the package level, including allowing for verification, aggregation, and inference, as necessary.
(G) The technical capabilities and legal authorities, if any, needed to establish an interoperable, electronic system that provides for tracing of product at the package level.
(H) The impact that such additional requirements would have on patient safety, the drug supply, cost and regulatory burden, and timely patient access to prescription drugs.
(I) Other topics, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.
(j) Pilot projects
(1) In general
The Secretary shall establish 1 or more pilot projects, in coordination with authorized manufacturers, repackagers, wholesale distributors, and dispensers, to explore and evaluate methods to enhance the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain. Such projects shall build upon efforts, in existence as of November 27, 2013, to enhance the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain, take into consideration any pilot projects conducted prior to November 27, 2013, including any pilot projects that use aggregation and inference, and inform the draft and final guidance under paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (h).
(2) Content
(A) In general
The Secretary shall ensure that the pilot projects under paragraph (1) reflect the diversity of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain and that the pilot projects, when taken as a whole, include participants representative of every sector, including both large and small businesses.
(B) Project design
The pilot projects under paragraph (1) shall be designed to—
(i) utilize the product identifier for tracing of a product, which may include verification of the product identifier of a product, including the use of aggregation and inference;
(ii) improve the technical capabilities of each sector and subsector to comply with systems and processes needed to utilize the product identifiers to enhance tracing of a product;
(iii) identify system attributes that are necessary to implement the requirements established under this section; and
(iv) complete other activities as determined by the Secretary.
(k) Sunset
The following requirements shall have no force or effect beginning on the date that is 10 years after November 27, 2013:
(1) The provision and receipt of transaction history under this section.
(2) The requirements set forth for returns under subsections (b)(4)(E), (c)(1)(B)(i), (d)(1)(C)(i), and (e)(4)(E).
(3) The requirements set forth under subparagraphs (A)(v)(II) and (D) of subsection (c)(1), as applied to lot level information only.
(l) Rule of construction
The requirements set forth in subsections (g)(4), (i), and (j) shall not be construed as a condition, prohibition, or precedent for precluding or delaying the provisions becoming effective pursuant to subsection (g).
(m) Requests for information
On the date that is 10 years after November 27, 2013, the timeline for responses to requests for information from the Secretary, or other appropriate Federal or State official, as applicable, under subsections (b)(1)(B), (c)(1)(C), and (e)(1)(C) shall be not later than 24 hours after receiving the request from the Secretary or other appropriate Federal or State official, as applicable, or in such other reasonable time as determined by the Secretary based on the circumstances of the request.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “title”.

Source

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 582, as added and amended Pub. L. 113–54, title II, §§ 202, 203,Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 605, 623.)
Amendments

2013—Subsecs. (g) to (m). Pub. L. 113–54, § 203, added subsecs. (g) to (m).

 

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