21 U.S. Code § 454 - Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs
(a) State laws; planning, technical and financial assistance; advisory committees
It is the policy of the Congress to protect the consuming public from poultry products that are adulterated or misbranded and to assist in efforts by State and other government agencies to accomplish this objective. In furtherance of this policy—
(1) The Secretary is authorized, whenever he determines that it would effectuate the purposes of this chapter, to cooperate with the appropriate State agency in developing and administering a State poultry product inspection program in any State which has enacted a mandatory State poultry product inspection law that imposes ante mortem and post mortem inspection, reinspection and sanitation requirements that are at least equal to those under this chapter, with respect to all or certain classes of persons engaged in the State in slaughtering poultry or processing poultry products for use as human food solely for distribution within such State.
(2) The Secretary is further authorized, whenever he determines that it would effectuate the purposes of this chapter, to cooperate with appropriate State agencies in developing and administering State programs under State laws containing authorities at least equal to those provided in section 460 of this title; and to cooperate with other agencies of the United States in carrying out any provisions of this chapter. In carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary may conduct such examinations, investigations, and inspections as he determines practicable through any officer or employee of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia commissioned by the Secretary for such purpose.
(3) Cooperation with State agencies under this section may include furnishing to the appropriate State agency
(i) advisory assistance in planning and otherwise developing an adequate State program under the State law; and
(ii) technical and laboratory assistance and training (including necessary curricular and instructional materials and equipment), and financial and other aid for administration of such a program. The amount to be contributed to any State by the Secretary under this section from Federal funds for any year shall not exceed 50 per centum of the estimated total cost of the cooperative program; and the Federal funds shall be allocated among the States desiring to cooperate on an equitable basis. Such cooperation and payment shall be contingent at all times upon the administration of the State program in a manner which the Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate advisory committee appointed under subparagraph (4), deems adequate to effectuate the purposes of this section.
(4) The Secretary may appoint advisory committees consisting of such representatives of appropriate State agencies as the Secretary and the State agencies may designate to consult with him concerning State and Federal programs with respect to poultry product inspection and other matters within the scope of this chapter, including evaluating State programs for purposes of this chapter, and obtaining better coordination and more uniformity among the State programs and between the Federal and State programs and adequate protection of consumers.
(b) Appropriate State agency; performance of functions by subordinate governmental unit
The appropriate State agency with which the Secretary may cooperate under this chapter shall be a single agency in the State which is primarily responsible for the coordination of the State programs having objectives similar to those under this chapter. When the State program includes performance of certain functions by a municipality or other subordinate governmental unit, such unit shall be deemed to be a part of the State agency for purposes of this section.
(c) Intrastate activities; designation of State for regulation; publication of designation; exempted operations; termination of designation; review of operations in nondesignated States; annual report
(1) If the Secretary has reason to believe, by thirty days prior to the expiration of two years after August 18, 1968, that a State has failed to develop or is not enforcing, with respect to all establishments within its jurisdiction (except those that would be exempted from Federal inspection under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph (c)) at which poultry are slaughtered, or poultry products are processed for use as human food, solely for distribution within such State, and the products of such establishments, requirements at least equal to those imposed under sections 451 to 453, 455 to 459, 461 to 467d of this title, he shall promptly notify the Governor of the State of this fact. If the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Governor of the State, or representative selected by him, that such requirements have not been developed and activated, he shall promptly after the expiration of such two-year period designate such State as one in which the provisions of said sections of this chapter shall apply to operations and transactions wholly within such State: Provided, That if the Secretary has reason to believe that the State will activate such requirements within one additional year, he may delay such designation for said period, and not designate the State, if he determines at the end of the year that the State then has such requirements in effective operation. The Secretary shall publish any such designation in the Federal Register and, upon the expiration of thirty days after such publication, the provisions of said sections of this chapter shall apply to operations and transactions and to persons engaged therein in the State to the same extent and in the same manner as if such operations and transactions were conducted in or for commerce. However, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if the Secretary determines that any establishment within a State is producing adulterated poultry products for distribution within such State which would clearly endanger the public health he shall notify the Governor of the State and the appropriate advisory committee provided for by subparagraph (a)(4) of this section of such fact for effective action under State or local law. If the State does not take action to prevent such endangering of the public health within a reasonable time after such notice, as determined by the Secretary, in light of the risk to public health, the Secretary may forthwith designate any such establishment as subject to the provisions of said sections of this chapter, and thereupon the establishment and operator thereof shall be subject to such provisions as though engaged in commerce until such time as the Secretary determines that such State has developed and will enforce requirements at least equal to those imposed under said sections.
(2) The provisions of this chapter requiring inspection of the slaughter of poultry and the processing of poultry products shall not apply to operations of types traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants, when conducted at any retail store or restaurant or similar retail-type establishment for sale in normal retail quantities or service of such articles to consumers at such establishments if such establishments are subject to such inspection provisions only under this paragraph (c). For the purposes of this subparagraph, operations conducted at a restaurant central kitchen facility shall be considered as being conducted at a restaurant if the restaurant central kitchen prepares poultry products that are ready to eat when they leave such facility and are served in meals or as entrees only to customers at restaurants owned or operated by the same person owning or operating such facility: Provided, That such facility shall be subject to the provisions of section 460 (b) of this title: Provided further, That the facility may be subject to the inspection requirements of this chapter for as long as the Secretary deems necessary, if the Secretary determines that the sanitary conditions or practices of the facility or the processing procedures or methods at the facility are such that any of its poultry products are rendered adulterated.
(3) Whenever the Secretary determines that any State designated under this paragraph (c) has developed and will enforce State poultry products inspection requirements at least equal to those imposed under the aforesaid sections of this chapter, with respect to the operations and transactions within such State which are regulated under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (c), he shall terminate the designation of such State under this paragraph (c), but this shall not preclude the subsequent redesignation of the State at any time upon thirty days’ notice to the Governor and publication in the Federal Register in accordance with this paragraph, and any State may be designated upon such notice and publication, at any time after the period specified in this paragraph whether or not the State has theretofore been designated, upon the Secretary determining that it is not effectively enforcing requirements at least equal to those imposed under said sections.
(4) The Secretary shall promptly upon August 18, 1968, and periodically thereafter, but at least annually, review the requirements, including the enforcement thereof, of the several States not designated under this paragraph (c), with respect to the slaughter, and the processing, storage, handling, and distribution of poultry products, and inspection of such operations, and annually report thereon to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate in the report required in section 470  of this title.
(d) “State” defined
As used in this section, the term “State” means any State (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) or organized territory.
 See References in Text note below.
Source(Pub. L. 85–172, § 5,Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 443; Pub. L. 90–492, § 5,Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 98–487, § 2,Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2264; Pub. L. 103–437, § 8(1),Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)
References in Text
Section 470 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), was omitted from the Code.
In par. (c)(1), (4), “August 18, 1968” substituted for “enactment of the Wholesome Poultry Products Act”.
1994—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–437substituted “Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry” for “Agriculture and Forestry”.
1984—Par. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–487inserted provisions relating to operations conducted at a restaurant central kitchen facility.
1968—Pub. L. 90–492substituted provisions authorizing the Secretary to cooperate with the appropriate state agency in the development and administration of state poultry product inspection programs in those states having mandatory poultry product inspection laws and those states having laws at least equal to the provisions of section 460 of this title, provisions authorizing planning, technical and financial assistance and the appointment of advisory committees, provisions designating the appropriate state agency with which the Secretary may cooperate, provisions authorizing the Secretary to designate states as subject to the regulatory provisions of this chapter when the requirements of the specified section have not been complied with or when the specified intrastate activities are present, provisions exempting from the requirements of this chapter operations of the types traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants, provisions authorizing the Secretary to terminate the aforementioned designation of states as subject to the regulatory provisions of this chapter, and provisions authorizing the Secretary to review the operations in nondesignated states and make an annual report thereon, for provisions authorizing the Secretary, upon application by any appropriate state or local official or agency or by any appropriate local poultry industry group and after public hearing, to designate major consuming areas as subject to the regulatory provisions of this chapter where the Secretary finds that poultry or poultry products are handled or consumed in such volume as to affect, burden or obstruct the movement of inspected poultry products in interstate commerce.
Effective Date of 1968 Amendment