22 U.S. Code § 1972 - Action by Secretary of State upon seizure of vessel by foreign country; preconditions

If—
(1) any vessel of the United States is seized by a foreign country on the basis of claims to jurisdiction that are not recognized by the United States, or on the basis of claims to jurisdiction recognized by the United States but exercised in a manner inconsistent with international law as recognized by the United States;  [1]
(2) any general claim of any foreign country to exclusive fishery management authority is recognized by the United States, and any vessel of the United States is seized by such foreign country on the basis of conditions and restrictions under such claim, if such conditions and restrictions—
(A) are unrelated to fishery conservation and management,
(B) fail to consider and take into account traditional fishing practices of vessels of the United States,
(C) are greater or more onerous than the conditions and restrictions which the United States applies to foreign fishing vessels subject to the exclusive fishery management authority of the United States (as established in title I of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act [16 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.]), or
(D) fail to allow fishing vessels of the United States equitable access to fish subject to such country’s exclusive fishery management authority;
the Secretary of State, unless there is clear and convincing credible evidence that the seizure did not meet the requirements under paragraph (1) or (2), as the case may be, shall immediately take such steps as are necessary—
(i) for the protection of such vessel and for the health and welfare of its crew;
(ii) to secure the release of such vessel and its crew; and
(iii) to determine the amount of any fine, license, fee, registration fee, or other direct charge reimbursable under section 1973 (a) of this title.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be followed by “or”.

Source

(Aug. 27, 1954, ch. 1018, § 2,68 Stat. 883; Pub. L. 92–569, § 1,Oct. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 1182; Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, § 403(a)(1),Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 360; Pub. L. 96–561, title II, § 238(b),Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3300; Pub. L. 98–364, title III, § 303(a),July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(a) [title II, § 211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–41.)
References in Text

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, referred to in par. (2)(C), is Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 1811 et seq.) of chapter 38 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of Title 16 and Tables.
Amendments

1996—Par. (2)(C). Pub. L. 104–208substituted “Magnuson-Stevens Fishery” for “Magnuson Fishery”.
1984—Pub. L. 98–364, in par. (1), substituted “any vessel of the United States is seized by a foreign country on the basis of claims to jurisdiction that are not recognized by the United States, or on the basis of claims to jurisdiction recognized by the United States but exercised in a manner inconsistent with international law as recognized by the United States;” for “any vessel of the United States is seized by a foreign country on the basis of claims in territorial waters or the high seas which are not recognized by the United States; or”, and in provisions following par. (2)(D), substituted “the Secretary of State, unless there is clear and convincing credible evidence that the seizure did not meet the requirements under paragraph (1) or (2), as the case may be, shall immediately take such steps as are necessary” for “and there is no dispute as to the material facts with respect to the location or activity of such vessel at the time of such seizure, the Secretary of State shall immediately take such steps as are necessary”.
1980—Par. (2)(C). Pub. L. 96–561substituted “Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act” for “Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976”.
1976—Pub. L. 94–265redesignated existing subsecs. (a) and (b) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, and, in par. (1) struck out reference to rights in territorial waters, and in par. (2) substituted provisions relating to any general claim of any foreign country, conditions, and restrictions of seizure, lack of dispute as to material facts, and steps authorized for Secretary of State upon seizure, for provisions relating to lack of dispute as to material facts and actions authorized for Secretary of State upon seizure.
1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–569required the Secretary of State to take appropriate action to immediately ascertain the fees, fines, and other direct charges paid by a United States vessel owner to the seizing foreign country for the release of the vessel and its crew.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(a) [title II, § 211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–41, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective 15 days after Oct. 11, 1996.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–364, title III, § 303(c),July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 445, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 1974 of this title] apply with respect to seizures made after April 1, 1983, by foreign countries of vessels of the United States.”
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–561, title II, § 238(b),Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3300, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective 15 days after Dec. 22, 1980.
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–265, title IV, § 403(b),Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 360, provided in part that the amendment made by section 403(a)(1) ofPub. L. 94–265to this section was to take effect Mar. 1, 1977, prior to the general amendment of title IV of Pub. L. 94–265by Pub. L. 104–297.
Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–569, § 6,Oct. 26, 1972, 86 Stat. 1183, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 1979 of this title and amending this section and sections 1973, 1975, and 1977 of this title] shall apply with respect to seizures of vessels of the United States occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 26, 1972]; except that reimbursements under section 3 of the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967 [section 1973 of this title] (as in effect before such date of enactment [Oct. 26, 1972]) may be made from the fund established by the amendment made by section 5 of this Act [enacting section 1979 of this title] with respect to any seizure of a vessel occurring before such date of enactment [Oct. 26, 1972] and after December 31, 1970, if no reimbursement was made before such date of enactment [Oct. 26, 1972].”

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22 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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