The Congress finds the survival of many animal and plant species is endangered by over-hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike. Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an important objective of the United States development assistance.
(b) Remedial measures
In order to preserve biological diversity, the President is authorized to furnish assistance under subchapter I of this chapter, notwithstanding section
2420 of this title, to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitats and in developing sound wildlife management and plant conservation programs. Special efforts should be made to establish and maintain wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, and parks; to enact and enforce anti-poaching measures; and to identify, study, and catalog animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments.
(c) Funding level
For fiscal year 1987, not less than $2,500,000 of the funds available to carry out subchapter I of this chapter (excluding funds made available to carry out section
2151b(c)(2) of this title, relating to the Child Survival Fund) shall be allocated for assistance pursuant to subsection (b) of this section for activities which were not funded prior to fiscal year 1987. In addition, the Agency for International Development shall, to the fullest extent possible, continue and increase assistance pursuant to subsection (b) of this section for activities for which assistance was provided in fiscal years prior to fiscal year 1987.
(d) Country analysis requirements
Each country development strategy statement or other country plan prepared by the Agency for International Development shall include an analysis of—
(1)the actions necessary in that country to conserve biological diversity, and
(2)the extent to which the actions proposed for support by the Agency meet the needs thus identified.
(e) Local involvement
To the fullest extent possible, projects supported under this section shall include close consultation with and involvement of local people at all stages of design and implementation.
(f) PVOs and other nongovernmental organizations
Whenever feasible, the objectives of this section shall be accomplished through projects managed by appropriate private and voluntary organizations, or international, regional, or national nongovernmental organizations, which are active in the region or country where the project is located.
(g) Actions by AID
The Administrator of the Agency for International Development shall—
(1)cooperate with appropriate international organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental;
(2)look to the World Conservation Strategy as an overall guide for actions to conserve biological diversity;
(3)engage in dialogues and exchanges of information with recipient countries which stress the importance of conserving biological diversity for the long-term economic benefit of those countries and which identify and focus on policies of those countries which directly or indirectly contribute to loss of biological diversity;
(4)support training and education efforts which improve the capacity of recipient countries to prevent loss of biological diversity;
(5)whenever possible, enter into long-term agreements in which the recipient country agrees to protect ecosystems or other wildlife habitats recommended for protection by relevant governmental or nongovernmental organizations or as a result of activities undertaken pursuant to paragraph (6), and the United States agrees to provide, subject to obtaining the necessary appropriations, additional assistance necessary for the establishment and maintenance of such protected areas;
(6)support, as necessary and in cooperation with the appropriate governmental and nongovernmental organizations, efforts to identify and survey ecosystems in recipient countries worthy of protection;
(7)cooperate with and support the relevant efforts of other agencies of the United States Government, including the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Park Service, the Forest Service, and the Peace Corps;
(8)review the Agency’s environmental regulations and revise them as necessary to ensure that ongoing and proposed actions by the Agency do not inadvertently endanger wildlife species or their critical habitats, harm protected areas, or have other adverse impacts on biological diversity (and shall report to the Congress within a year after October 24, 1986, on the actions taken pursuant to this paragraph);
(9)ensure that environmental profiles sponsored by the Agency include information needed for conservation of biological diversity; and
(10)deny any direct or indirect assistance under this part for actions which significantly degrade national parks or similar protected areas or introduce exotic plants or animals into such areas.
(h) Annual reports
Each annual report required by section
2394(a) of this title shall include, in a separate volume, a report on the implementation of this section.
References to Subchapter I Deemed To Include Certain Parts of Subchapter II
References to subchapter I of this chapter are deemed to include parts IV (§ 2346 et seq.), VI (§ 2348 et seq.), and VIII (§ 2349aa et seq.) of subchapter II of this chapter, and references to subchapter II are deemed to exclude such parts. See section 202(b) ofPub. L. 92–226, set out as a note under section
2346 of this title, and sections
2349aa–5 of this title.
1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–167inserted “, notwithstanding section
2420 of this title,” after “subchapter I of this chapter”.
1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–529added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “The Administrator of the Agency for International Development, in conjunction with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Interior, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, and the heads of other appropriate Government agencies, shall develop a United States strategy, including specific policies and programs, to protect and conserve biological diversity in developing countries.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–529added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: “Each annual report required by section
2394(a) of this title shall include, in a separate volume, a report on the implementation of this subsection. Not later than one year after November 22, 1983, the President shall submit a comprehensive report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate on the United States strategy to protect and conserve biological diversity in developing countries.”
For short title of title VII of Pub. L. 98–164, which enacted this section and amended section
2452 of this title, as the “International Environment Protection Act of 1983”, see section 701 ofPub. L. 98–164, set out as a Short Title of 1983 Amendment note under section
2151 of this title.
Delegation of Functions
For delegation of functions of President under this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 12163, Sept. 29, 1979, 44 F.R. 56673, as amended, set out as a note under section
2381 of this title.
Increased International Cooperation To Protect Biological Diversity
Pub. L. 100–530, Oct. 25, 1988, 102 Stat. 2651, provided that Congress supports United States efforts, consistent with 22 U.S.C. 2151q(g), to initiate discussions to develop an international agreement to preserve biological diversity and calls upon the President to continue exerting United States leadership in order to achieve the earliest possible negotiation of an international convention to conserve biological diversity, and directed the President to submit a report to Congress on progress toward goal of negotiating such convention not later than one year after Oct. 25, 1988.
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