22 U.S. Code § 2228 - International Muslim Youth Opportunity Fund

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(a) Purpose
The purpose of this section is to strengthen the public educational systems in predominantly Muslim countries by—
(1) authorizing the establishment of an International Muslim Youth Educational Fund through which the United States dedicates resources, either through a separate fund or through an international organization, to assist those countries that commit to education reform; and
(2) providing resources for the Fund and to the President to help strengthen the public educational systems in those countries.
(b) Establishment of Fund
(1) Authority
The President is authorized to establish an International Muslim Youth Opportunity Fund and to carry out programs consistent with paragraph (4) under existing authorities, including the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (commonly referred to as the “Fulbright-Hays Act”) [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.].
(2) Location
The Fund may be established—
(A) as a separate fund in the Treasury; or
(B) through an international organization or international financial institution, such as the United Nations Educational, Science and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Development Program, or the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
(3) Transfers and receipts
The head of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may transfer any amount to the Fund, and the Fund may receive funds from private enterprises, foreign countries, or other entities.
(4) Activities of the Fund
The Fund shall support programs described in this paragraph to improve the education environment in predominantly Muslim countries.
(A) Assistance to enhance modern educational programs
(i) The establishment in predominantly Muslim countries of a program of reform to create a modern education curriculum in the public educational systems in such countries.
(ii) The establishment or modernization of educational materials to advance a modern educational curriculum in such systems.
(iii) Teaching English to adults and children.
(iv) The enhancement in predominantly Muslim countries of community, family, and student participation in the formulation and implementation of education strategies and programs in such countries.
(B) Assistance for training and exchange programs for teachers, administrators, and students
(i) The establishment of training programs for teachers and educational administrators to enhance skills, including the establishment of regional centers to train individuals who can transfer such skills upon return to their countries.
(ii) The establishment of exchange programs for teachers and administrators in predominantly Muslim countries and with other countries to stimulate additional ideas and reform throughout the world, including teacher training exchange programs focused on primary school teachers in such countries.
(iii) The establishment of exchange programs for primary and secondary students in predominantly Muslim countries and with other countries to foster understanding and tolerance and to stimulate long-standing relationships.
(C) Assistance targeting primary and secondary students
(i) The establishment in predominantly Muslim countries of after-school programs, civic education programs, and education programs focusing on life skills, such as inter-personal skills and social relations and skills for healthy living, such as nutrition and physical fitness.
(ii) The establishment in predominantly Muslim countries of programs to improve the proficiency of primary and secondary students in information technology skills.
(D) Assistance for development of youth professionals
(i) The establishment of programs in predominantly Muslim countries to improve vocational training in trades to help strengthen participation of Muslims and Arabs in the economic development of their countries.
(ii) The establishment of programs in predominantly Muslim countries that target older Muslim youths not in school in such areas as entrepreneurial skills, accounting, micro-finance activities, work training, financial literacy, and information technology.
(E) Other types of assistance
(i) The translation of foreign books, newspapers, reference guides, and other reading materials into local languages.
(ii) The construction and equipping of modern community and university libraries.
(5) Authorization of appropriations
(A) In general
There is authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2008, 2009, and 2010.
(B) Availability
Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under subsection (a)  [1] are authorized to remain available until expended.
(C) Additional funds
Amounts authorized to be appropriated under subsection (a)  [1] shall be in addition to amounts otherwise available for such purposes.
(6) Report to Congress
Not later than 180 days after August 3, 2007, and annually thereafter until January 30, 2010, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on United States efforts to assist in the improvement of educational opportunities for predominantly Muslim children and youths, including the progress made toward establishing the International Muslim Youth Opportunity Fund.
(7) Appropriate congressional committees defined
In this subsection, the term “appropriate congressional committees” means the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph (A)”.

Source

(Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7114,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3798; Pub. L. 110–53, title XX, § 2012,Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 509.)
References in Text

The Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, which is classified principally to chapter 33 (§ 2451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2451 of this title and Tables.
August 3, 2007, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was in the original “the date of the enactment of this section” and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–53, which generally amended this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and also as part of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.
Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–53amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to purpose of section, authority of President to establish an International Muslim Youth Opportunity Fund as a separate fund in the Treasury or through an international organization or financial institution, and authority of Fund to support specified activities, for provisions setting forth congressional findings and authorizing the Secretary of State to establish an International Youth Opportunity Fund through an existing international organization.
Findings; Policy

Pub. L. 110–53, title XX, § 2011,Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 509, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) The report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States stated that ‘[e]ducation that teaches tolerance, the dignity and value of each individual, and respect for different beliefs is a key element in any global strategy to eliminate Islamist terrorism’.
“(2) The report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States concluded that ensuring educational opportunity is essential to the efforts of the United States to defeat global terrorism and recommended that the United States Government ‘should offer to join with other nations in generously supporting [spending funds] . . . directly for building and operating primary and secondary schools in those Muslim states that commit to sensibly investing their own money in public education’.
“(3) While Congress endorsed such a program in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108–458 [see Tables for classification]), such a program has not been established.
“(b) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States—
“(1) to work toward the goal of dramatically increasing the availability of modern basic education through public schools in predominantly Muslim countries, which will reduce the influence of radical madrassas and other institutions that promote religious extremism;
“(2) to join with other countries in generously supporting the International Muslim Youth Opportunity Fund authorized under section 7114 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 [22 U.S.C. 2228], as amended by section 2012 of this Act, with the goal of building and supporting public primary and secondary schools in predominantly Muslim countries that commit to sensibly investing the resources of such countries in modern public education;
“(3) to offer additional incentives to increase the availability of modern basic education in predominantly Muslim countries; and
“(4) to work to prevent financing of educational institutions that support radical Islamic fundamentalism.”
Assignment of Specified Reporting and Determination Functions Relating to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Certain Education Abroad

Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56871, provided:
Memorandum for the Secretary of State[,] the Secretary of Defense[, and] the Director of National Intelligence
By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under sections 2041(d)(3), 2042(c)(1), 2042(d), and 2043(c)(1) of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 (Public Law 110–53) (the “9/11 Act”) and section 7114(b)(6) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108–458), as amended.
The Secretary of State shall consult with:
(1) the Secretary of Defense in the performance of the functions in section 2041(d)(3) of the 9/11 Act; and
(2) the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence in the performance of the functions in section 2043(c)(1) of the 9/11 Act.
The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
George W. Bush.

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