22 U.S. Code § 3244 - Actions to combat international nuclear terrorism
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(a) Actions to be taken by President
The Congress hereby directs the President—
(A) conduct a review, enlisting the participation of all relevant departments and agencies of the Government, to determine whether the recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material published by the International Atomic Energy Agency are adequate to deter theft, sabotage, and the use of nuclear facilities and materials in acts of international terrorism, and
(3) to take, in concert with United States allies and other countries, such steps as may be necessary—
(4) to seek agreement in the United Nations Security Council to establish—
(A) an effective regime of international sanctions against any nation or subnational group which conducts or sponsors acts of international nuclear terrorism, and
(b) Reports to Congress
The President shall report to the Congress annually, in the reports required by section 3281 of this title, on the progress made during the preceding year in achieving the objectives described in this section.
Source(Pub. L. 99–399, title VI, § 601,Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 874.)
Section was enacted as part of the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986, and not as part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 which comprises this chapter.
Nuclear Terrorism Prevention
“SEC. 3131. DEFINITIONS.
“In this subtitle:
“(1) The term ‘Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material’ means the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, signed at New York and Vienna March 3, 1980.
“(2) The term ‘formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material’ means uranium–235 (contained in uranium enriched to 20 percent or more in the U–235 isotope), uranium–233, or plutonium in any combination in a total quantity of 5,000 grams or more computed by the formula, grams = (grams contained U–235) 2.5 (grams U–233 grams plutonium), as set forth in the definitions of ‘formula quantity’ and ‘strategic special nuclear material’ in section 73.2 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations.
“(3) The term ‘Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty’ means the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, done at Washington, London, and Moscow July 1, 1968, and entered into force March 5, 1970 (21 UST 483).
“(4) The term ‘nuclear weapon’ means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for the development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device.“SEC. 3132. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON THE PREVENTION OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM.
“It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1) the President should make the prevention of a nuclear terrorist attack on the United States a high priority;
“(2) the President should accelerate programs, requesting additional funding as appropriate, to prevent nuclear terrorism, including combating nuclear smuggling, securing and accounting for nuclear weapons, and eliminating, removing, or securing and accounting for formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material wherever such quantities may be;
“(3) the United States, together with the international community, should take a comprehensive approach to reducing the danger of nuclear terrorism, including by making additional efforts to identify and eliminate terrorist groups that aim to acquire nuclear weapons, to ensure that nuclear weapons worldwide are secure and accounted for and that formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material worldwide are eliminated, removed, or secure and accounted for to a degree sufficient to defeat the threat that terrorists and criminals have shown they can pose, and to increase the ability to find and stop terrorist efforts to manufacture nuclear explosives or to transport nuclear explosives and materials anywhere in the world;
“(4) within such a comprehensive approach, a high priority must be placed on ensuring that all nuclear weapons worldwide are secure and accounted for and that all formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material worldwide are eliminated, removed, or secure and accounted for; and
“(5) the International Atomic Energy Agency should be funded appropriately to fulfill its role in coordinating international efforts to protect nuclear material and to combat nuclear smuggling.“SEC. 3133. MINIMUM SECURITY STANDARD FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND FORMULA QUANTITIES OF STRATEGIC SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL.
“(a) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to work with the international community to take all possible steps to ensure that all nuclear weapons around the world are secure and accounted for and that all formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material are eliminated, removed, or secure and accounted for to a level sufficient to defeat the threats posed by terrorists and criminals.
“(b) International Nuclear Security Standard.—It is the sense of Congress that, in furtherance of the policy described in subsection (a), and consistent with the requirement for ‘appropriate effective’ physical protection contained in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004), as well as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the President, in consultation with relevant Federal departments and agencies, should seek the broadest possible international agreement on a global standard for nuclear security that—
“(1) ensures that nuclear weapons and formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material are secure and accounted for to a sufficient level to defeat the threats posed by terrorists and criminals;
“(2) takes into account the limitations of equipment and human performance; and
“(3) includes steps to provide confidence that the needed measures have in fact been implemented.
“(c) International Efforts.—It is the sense of Congress that, in furtherance of the policy described in subsection (a), the President, in consultation with relevant Federal departments and agencies, should—
“(1) work with other countries and the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist as appropriate, and if necessary work to convince, the governments of any and all countries in possession of nuclear weapons or formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material to ensure that security is upgraded to meet the standard described in subsection (b) as rapidly as possible and in a manner that—
“(A) accounts for the nature of the terrorist and criminal threat in each such country; and
“(B) ensures that any measures to which the United States and any such country agree are sustained after United States and other international assistance ends;
“(2) ensure that United States financial and technical assistance is available, as appropriate, to countries for which the provision of such assistance would accelerate the implementation of, or improve the effectiveness of, such security upgrades; and
“(3) work with the governments of other countries to ensure that effective nuclear security rules, accompanied by effective regulation and enforcement, are put in place to govern all nuclear weapons and formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material around the world.“SEC. 3134. ANNUAL REPORT.
“(a) In General.—Not later than September 1 of each year through 2012, the President, in consultation with relevant Federal departments and agencies, shall submit to Congress a report on the security of nuclear weapons and related equipment and formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material outside of the United States.
“(b) Elements.—The report required under subsection (a) shall include the following:
“(1) A section on the programs for the security and accounting of nuclear weapons and the elimination, removal, and security and accounting of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material, established under section 3132(b) of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (50 U.S.C. 2569 (b)), which shall include the following:
“(A) A survey of the facilities and sites worldwide that contain nuclear weapons or related equipment, or formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material.
“(B) A list of such facilities and sites determined to be of the highest priority for security and accounting of nuclear weapons and related equipment, or the elimination, removal, or security and accounting of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material, taking into account risk of theft from such facilities and sites, and organized by level of priority.
“(C) A prioritized plan, including measurable milestones, metrics, estimated timetables, and estimated costs of implementation, on the following:
“(i) The security and accounting of nuclear weapons and related equipment and the elimination, removal, or security and accounting of formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material at such facilities and sites worldwide.
“(ii) Ensuring that security upgrades and accounting reforms implemented at such facilities and sites worldwide, using the financial and technical assistance of the United States, are effectively sustained after such assistance ends.
“(iii) The role that international agencies and the international community have committed to play, together with a plan for securing international contributions.
“(D) An assessment of the progress made in implementing the plan described in subparagraph (C), including a description of the efforts of foreign governments to secure and account for nuclear weapons and related equipment and to eliminate, remove, or secure and account for formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material.
“(2) A section on efforts to establish and implement the international nuclear security standard described in section 3133(b) and related policies.
“(c) Form.—The report may be submitted in classified form but shall include a detailed unclassified summary.”