(1)the macroeconomic policies, including the exchange rate policies, of the leading industrialized nations require improved coordination and are not consistent with long-term economic growth and financial stability;
(2)currency values have a major role in determining the patterns of production and trade in the world economy;
(3)the rise in the value of the dollar in the early 1980’s contributed substantially to our current trade deficit;
(4)exchange rates among major trading nations have become increasingly volatile and a pattern of exchange rates has at times developed which contribute to substantial and persistent imbalances in the flow of goods and services between nations, imposing serious strains on the world trading system and frustrating both business and government planning;
(5)capital flows between nations have become very large compared to trade flows, respond at times quickly and dramatically to policy and economic changes, and, for these reasons, contribute significantly to uncertainty in financial markets, the volatility of exchange rates, and the development of exchange rates which produce imbalances in the flow of goods and services between nations;
(6)policy initiatives by some major trading nations that manipulate the value of their currencies in relation to the United States dollar to gain competitive advantage continue to create serious competitive problems for United States industries;
(7)a more stable exchange rate for the dollar at a level consistent with a more appropriate and sustainable balance in the United States current account should be a major focus of national economic policy;
(8)procedures for improving the coordination of macroeconomic policy need to be strengthened considerably; and
(9)under appropriate circumstances, intervention by the United States in foreign exchange markets as part of a coordinated international strategic intervention effort could produce more orderly adjustment of foreign exchange markets and, in combination with necessary macroeconomic policy changes, assist adjustment toward a more appropriate and sustainable balance in current accounts.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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