The United States shall implement, beginning in fiscal year 1990, a concerted Program of Support for East European Democracy (which may also be referred to as the “SEED Program”). The SEED Program shall be comprised of diverse undertakings designed to provide cost-effective assistance to those countries of Eastern Europe that have taken substantive steps toward institutionalizing political democracy and economic pluralism.
Assistance and other activities under the SEED Program (which may be referred to as “SEED Actions”) shall include activities such as the following:
Leadership in the World Bank and International Monetary Fund
United States leadership in supporting—
loans by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliated institutions in the World Bank group that are designed to modernize industry, agriculture, and infrastructure, and
International Monetary Fund programs designed to stimulate sound economic growth.
Currency stabilization loans
United States leadership in supporting multilateral agreement to provide government-to-government loans for currency stabilization where such loans can reduce inflation and thereby foster conditions necessary for the effective implementation of economic reforms.
Debt reduction and rescheduling
Participation in multilateral activities aimed at reducing and rescheduling a country’s international debt, when reduction and deferral of debt payments can assist the process of political and economic transition.
Assistance through the grant and concessional sale of food and other agricultural commodities and products when such assistance can ease critical shortages but not inhibit agricultural production and marketing in the recipient country.
Grants to support private, nonprofit “Enterprise Funds”, designated by the President pursuant to law and governed by a Board of Directors, which undertake loans, grants, equity investments, feasibility studies, technical assistance, training, and other forms of assistance to private enterprise activities in the Eastern European country for which the Enterprise Fund so is designated.
Labor market-oriented technical assistance
Technical assistance programs directed at promoting labor market reforms and facilitating economic adjustment.
Programs to provide technical skills to assist in the development of a market economy.
Establishment of Peace Corps programs.
Support for indigenous credit unions
Support for the establishment of indigenous credit unions.
Generalized System of Preferences
Eligibility for trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences.
Normal trade relations
The granting of temporary or permanent nondiscriminatory treatment to the products of an East European country through the application of the criteria and procedures established by section
(commonly referred to as the “Jackson-Vanik amendment”).
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
Programs of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.
Export-Import Bank programs
Programs of the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
Trade and Development Program activities
Trade and Development Agency activities under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22
Negotiation of bilateral investment treaties.
Special tax treatment of below-market loans
Exempting bonds from Internal Revenue Code [title 26] rules relating to below-market loans.
Expanded exchange activities under the Fulbright, International Visitors, and other programs conducted by the United States Information Agency.
Contributions toward the establishment of reciprocal cultural centers that can facilitate educational and cultural exchange and expanded understanding of Western social democracy.
Establishment of sister institution programs between American and East European schools and universities, towns and cities, and other organizations in such fields as medicine and health care, business management, environmental protection, and agriculture.
Scholarships to enable students to study in the United States.
Science and technology exchanges
Grants for the implementation of bilateral agreements providing for cooperation in science and technology exchange.
Assistance for democratic institutions
Assistance designed to support the development of legal, legislative, electoral, journalistic, and other institutions of free, pluralist societies.
Environmental assistance directed at overcoming crucial deficiencies in air and water quality and other determinants of a healthful society.
Medical assistance specifically targeted to overcome severe deficiencies in pharmaceuticals and other basic health supplies.
Encouragement for private investment and voluntary assistance
Encouraging private investment and voluntary private assistance, using a variety of means including a SEED Information Center System and the provision by the Department of Defense of transportation for private nonfinancial contributions.