22 U.S. Code § 5605 - Sanctions against use of chemical or biological weapons

(a) Initial sanctions
If, at any time, the President makes a determination pursuant to section 5604 (a)(1) of this title with respect to the government of a foreign country, the President shall forthwith impose the following sanctions:
(1) Foreign assistance
The United States Government shall terminate assistance to that country under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], except for urgent humanitarian assistance and food or other agricultural commodities or products.
(2) Arms sales
The United States Government shall terminate—
(A) sales to that country under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] of any defense articles, defense services, or design and construction services, and
(B) licenses for the export to that country of any item on the United States Munitions List.
(3) Arms sales financing
The United States Government shall terminate all foreign military financing for that country under the Arms Export Control Act.
(4) Denial of United States Government credit or other financial assistance
The United States Government shall deny to that country any credit, credit guarantees, or other financial assistance by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, including the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
(5) Exports of national security-sensitive goods and technology
The authorities of section 2405 of title 50, Appendix, shall be used to prohibit the export to that country of any goods or technology on that part of the control list established under section 2404 (c)(1) of title 50, Appendix.
(b) Additional sanctions if certain conditions not met
(1) Presidential determination
Unless, within 3 months after making a determination pursuant to section 5604 (a)(1) of this title with respect to a foreign government, the President determines and certifies in writing to the Congress that—
(A) that government is no longer using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals,
(B) that government has provided reliable assurances that it will not in the future engage in any such activities, and
(C) that government is willing to allow on-site inspections by United Nations observers or other internationally recognized, impartial observers, or other reliable means exist, to ensure that that government is not using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law and is not using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals,
then the President, after consultation with the Congress, shall impose on that country the sanctions set forth in at least 3 of subparagraphs (A) through (F) of paragraph (2).
(2) Sanctions
The sanctions referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:
(A) Multilateral development bank assistance
The United States Government shall oppose, in accordance with section 262d of this title, the extension of any loan or financial or technical assistance to that country by international financial institutions.
(B) Bank loans
The United States Government shall prohibit any United States bank from making any loan or providing any credit to the government of that country, except for loans or credits for the purpose of purchasing food or other agricultural commodities or products.
(C) Further export restrictions
The authorities of section 2405 of title 50, Appendix, shall be used to prohibit exports to that country of all other goods and technology (excluding food and other agricultural commodities and products).
(D) Import restrictions
Restrictions shall be imposed on the importation into the United States of articles (which may include petroleum or any petroleum product) that are the growth, product, or manufacture of that country.
(E) Diplomatic relations
The President shall use his constitutional authorities to downgrade or suspend diplomatic relations between the United States and the government of that country.
(F) Presidential action regarding aviation
(i)
(I) The President is authorized to notify the government of a country with respect to which the President has made a determination pursuant to section 5604 (a)(1) of this title of his intention to suspend the authority of foreign air carriers owned or controlled by the government of that country to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States.
(II) Within 10 days after the date of notification of a government under subclause (I), the Secretary of Transportation shall take all steps necessary to suspend at the earliest possible date the authority of any foreign air carrier owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by that government to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States, notwithstanding any agreement relating to air services.
(ii)
(I) The President may direct the Secretary of State to terminate any air service agreement between the United States and a country with respect to which the President has made a determination pursuant to section 5604 (a)(1) of this title, in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.
(II) Upon termination of an agreement under this clause, the Secretary of Transportation shall take such steps as may be necessary to revoke at the earliest possible date the right of any foreign air carrier owned, or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the government of that country to engage in foreign air transportation to or from the United States.
(iii) The Secretary of Transportation may provide for such exceptions from clauses (i) and (ii) as the Secretary considers necessary to provide for emergencies in which the safety of an aircraft or its crew or passengers is threatened.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the terms “air transportation”, “air carrier”, “foreign air carrier”, and “foreign air transportation” have the meanings such terms have under section 40102 (a) of title 49.
(c) Removal of sanctions
The President shall remove the sanctions imposed with respect to a country pursuant to this section if the President determines and so certifies to the Congress, after the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which sanctions were initially imposed on that country pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, that—
(1) the government of that country has provided reliable assurances that it will not use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law and will not use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals;
(2) that government is not making preparations to use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or to use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals;
(3) that government is willing to allow on-site inspections by United Nations observers or other internationally recognized, impartial observers to verify that it is not making preparations to use chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or to use lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals, or other reliable means exist to verify that it is not making such preparations; and
(4) that government is making restitution to those affected by any use of chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or by any use of lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals.
(d) Waiver
(1) Criteria for waiver
The President may waive the application of any sanction imposed with respect to a country pursuant to this section—
(A) if—
(i) in the case of any sanction other than a sanction specified in subsection (b)(2)(D) of this section (relating to import restrictions) or (b)(2)(E) of this section (relating to the downgrading or suspension of diplomatic relations), the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is essential to the national security interests of the United States, and if the President notifies the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives of his determination and certification at least 15 days before the waiver takes effect, in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 634A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2394–1], or
(ii) in the case of any sanction specified in subsection (b)(2)(D) of this section (relating to import restrictions), the President determines and certifies to the Congress that such waiver is essential to the national security interest of the United States, and if the President notifies the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives of his determination and certification at least 15 days before the waiver takes effect; or
(B) if the President determines and certifies to the Congress that there has been a fundamental change in the leadership and policies of the government of that country, and if the President notifies the Congress at least 20 days before the waiver takes effect.
(2) Report
In the event that the President decides to exercise the waiver authority provided in paragraph (1) with respect to a country, the President’s notification to the Congress under such paragraph shall include a report fully articulating the rationale and circumstances which led the President to exercise that waiver authority, including a description of the steps which the government of that country has taken to satisfy the conditions set forth in paragraphs (1) through (4) of subsection (c) of this section.
(e) Contract sanctity
(1) Sanctions not applied to existing contracts
(A) A sanction described in paragraph (4) or (5) of subsection (a) of this section or in any of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of subsection (b)(2) of this section shall not apply to any activity pursuant to any contract or international agreement entered into before the date of the presidential determination under section 5604 (a)(1) of this title unless the President determines, on a case-by-case basis, that to apply such sanction to that activity would prevent the performance of a contract or agreement that would have the effect of assisting a country in using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or in using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals.
(B) The same restrictions of subsection (p) ofsection 2405 of title 50, Appendix, as that subsection is so redesignated by section 304(b) of this title, which are applicable to exports prohibited under section 2405 of title 50, Appendix, shall apply to exports prohibited under subsection (a)(5) or (b)(2)(C) of this section. For purposes of this subparagraph, any contract or agreement the performance of which (as determined by the President) would have the effect of assisting a foreign government in using chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law or in using lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals shall be treated as constituting a breach of the peace that poses a serious and direct threat to the strategic interest of the United States, within the meaning of subparagraph (A) of section 2405 (p) of title 50, Appendix.
(2) Sanctions applied to existing contracts
The sanctions described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) of this section shall apply to contracts, agreements, and licenses without regard to the date the contract or agreement was entered into or the license was issued (as the case may be), except that such sanctions shall not apply to any contract or agreement entered into or license issued before the date of the presidential determination under section 5604 (a)(1) of this title if the President determines that the application of such sanction would be detrimental to the national security interests of the United States.

Source

(Pub. L. 102–182, title III, § 307,Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1254.)
References in Text

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§ 2151 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.
The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), (3), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§ 2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.
Section 304(b) of this title, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(B), is section 304(b) ofPub. L. 102–182, title III, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1246, which amended section 2405 of Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense.
Codification

In subsec. (b)(2)(F)(iv), “section 40102 (a) of title 49” substituted for “section 101 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1301)” on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, § 6(b),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.
Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of State, with certain exceptions, by section 1(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12851, June 11, 1993, 58 F.R. 33181, set out as a note under section 2797 of this title.

 

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