(1)Individuals enjoy a fundamental right to own and enjoy property which is enshrined in the United States Constitution.
(2)The wrongful confiscation or taking of property belonging to United States nationals by the Cuban Government, and the subsequent exploitation of this property at the expense of the rightful owner, undermines the comity of nations, the free flow of commerce, and economic development.
(3)Since Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba in 1959—
(A)he has trampled on the fundamental rights of the Cuban people; and
(B)through his personal despotism, he has confiscated the property of—
(i)millions of his own citizens;
(ii)thousands of United States nationals; and
(iii)thousands more Cubans who claimed asylum in the United States as refugees because of persecution and later became naturalized citizens of the United States.
(4)It is in the interest of the Cuban people that the Cuban Government respect equally the property rights of Cuban nationals and nationals of other countries.
(5)The Cuban Government is offering foreign investors the opportunity to purchase an equity interest in, manage, or enter into joint ventures using property and assets some of which were confiscated from United States nationals.
(6)This “trafficking” in confiscated property provides badly needed financial benefit, including hard currency, oil, and productive investment and expertise, to the current Cuban Government and thus undermines the foreign policy of the United States—
(A)to bring democratic institutions to Cuba through the pressure of a general economic embargo at a time when the Castro regime has proven to be vulnerable to international economic pressure; and
(B)to protect the claims of United States nationals who had property wrongfully confiscated by the Cuban Government.
(7)The United States Department of State has notified other governments that the transfer to third parties of properties confiscated by the Cuban Government “would complicate any attempt to return them to their original owners”.
(8)The international judicial system, as currently structured, lacks fully effective remedies for the wrongful confiscation of property and for unjust enrichment from the use of wrongfully confiscated property by governments and private entities at the expense of the rightful owners of the property.
(9)International law recognizes that a nation has the ability to provide for rules of law with respect to conduct outside its territory that has or is intended to have substantial effect within its territory.
(10)The United States Government has an obligation to its citizens to provide protection against wrongful confiscations by foreign nations and their citizens, including the provision of private remedies.
(11)To deter trafficking in wrongfully confiscated property, United States nationals who were the victims of these confiscations should be endowed with a judicial remedy in the courts of the United States that would deny traffickers any profits from economically exploiting Castro’s wrongful seizures.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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Statutes at Large
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