22 U.S. Code § 7002 - United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission

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(a) Purposes
The purposes of this section are as follows:
(1) To establish the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission to review the national security implications of trade and economic ties between the United States and the People’s Republic of China.
(2) To facilitate the assumption by the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission of its duties regarding the review referred to in paragraph (1) by providing for the transfer to that Commission of staff, materials, and infrastructure (including leased premises) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission that are appropriate for the review upon the submittal of the final report of the Trade Deficit Review Commission.
(b) Establishment of United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission
(1) In general
There is hereby established a commission to be known as the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission (in this section referred to as the “Commission”).
(2) Purpose
The purpose of the Commission is to monitor, investigate, and report to Congress on the national security implications of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People’s Republic of China.
(3) Membership
The Commission shall be composed of 12 members, who shall be appointed in the same manner provided for the appointment of members of the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127(c)(3) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act (19 U.S.C. 2213 note), except that—
(A) appointment of members by the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall be made after consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, in addition to consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives provided for under clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of that section;
(B) appointment of members by the President pro tempore of the Senate upon the recommendation of the majority leader of the Senate shall be made after consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, in addition to consultation with the chairman of the Committee on Finance of the Senate provided for under clause (i) of that subparagraph;
(C) appointment of members by the President pro tempore of the Senate upon the recommendation of the minority leader of the Senate shall be made after consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, in addition to consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Finance of the Senate provided for under clause (ii) of that subparagraph;
(D) appointment of members by the minority leader of the House of Representatives shall be made after consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, in addition to consultation with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives provided for under clause (iv) of that subparagraph;
(E) persons appointed to the Commission shall have expertise in national security matters and United States-China relations, in addition to the expertise provided for under subparagraph (B)(i)(I) of that section;
(F) each appointing authority referred to under subparagraphs (A) through (D) of this paragraph shall—
(i) appoint 3 members to the Commission;
(ii) make the appointments on a staggered term basis, such that—
(I) 1 appointment shall be for a term expiring on December 31, 2003;
(II) 1 appointment shall be for a term expiring on December 31, 2004; and
(III) 1 appointment shall be for a term expiring on December 31, 2005;
(iii) make all subsequent appointments on an approximate 2-year term basis to expire on December 31 of the applicable year; and
(iv) make appointments not later than 30 days after the date on which each new Congress convenes;
(G) members of the Commission may be reappointed for additional terms of service as members of the Commission; and
(H) members of the Trade Deficit Review Commission as of October 30, 2000, shall serve as members of the Commission until such time as members are first appointed to the Commission under this paragraph.
(4) Retention of support
The Commission shall retain and make use of such staff, materials, and infrastructure (including leased premises) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission as the Commission determines, in the judgment of the members of the Commission, are required to facilitate the ready commencement of activities of the Commission under subsection (c) of this section or to carry out such activities after the commencement of such activities.
(5) Chairman and Vice Chairman
The members of the Commission shall select a Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Commission from among the members of the Commission.
(6) Meetings
(A) Meetings
The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman of the Commission.
(B) Quorum
A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business of the Commission.
(7) Voting
Each member of the Commission shall be entitled to one vote, which shall be equal to the vote of every other member of the Commission.
(c) Duties
(1) Annual report
Not later than December 1 each year (beginning in 2002), the Commission shall submit to Congress a report, in both unclassified and classified form, regarding the national security implications and impact of the bilateral trade and economic relationship between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. The report shall include a full analysis, along with conclusions and recommendations for legislative and administrative actions, if any, of the national security implications for the United States of the trade and current balances with the People’s Republic of China in goods and services, financial transactions, and technology transfers. The Commission shall also take into account patterns of trade and transfers through third countries to the extent practicable.
(2) Contents of report
Each report under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum, a full discussion of the following:
(A) The portion of trade in goods and services with the United States that the People’s Republic of China dedicates to military systems or systems of a dual nature that could be used for military purposes.
(B) The acquisition by the People’s Republic of China of advanced military or dual-use technologies from the United States by trade (including procurement) and other technology transfers, especially those transfers, if any, that contribute to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or their delivery systems, or that undermine international agreements or United States laws with respect to nonproliferation.
(C) Any transfers, other than those identified under subparagraph (B), to the military systems of the People’s Republic of China made by United States firms and United States-based multinational corporations.
(D) An analysis of the statements and writing of the People’s Republic of China officials and officially-sanctioned writings that bear on the intentions, if any, of the Government of the People’s Republic of China regarding the pursuit of military competition with, and leverage over, or cooperation with, the United States and the Asian allies of the United States.
(E) The military actions taken by the Government of the People’s Republic of China during the preceding year that bear on the national security of the United States and the regional stability of the Asian allies of the United States.
(F) The effects, if any, on the national security interests of the United States of the use by the People’s Republic of China of financial transactions and capital flow and currency manipulations.
(G) Any action taken by the Government of the People’s Republic of China in the context of the World Trade Organization that is adverse or favorable to the United States national security interests.
(H) Patterns of trade and investment between the People’s Republic of China and its major trading partners, other than the United States, that appear to be substantively different from trade and investment patterns with the United States and whether the differences have any national security implications for the United States.
(I) The extent to which the trade surplus of the People’s Republic of China with the United States enhances the military budget of the People’s Republic of China.
(J) An overall assessment of the state of the security challenges presented by the People’s Republic of China to the United States and whether the security challenges are increasing or decreasing from previous years.
(3) Recommendations of report
Each report under paragraph (1) shall also include recommendations for action by Congress or the President, or both, including specific recommendations for the United States to invoke Article XXI (relating to security exceptions) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 with respect to the People’s Republic of China, as a result of any adverse impact on the national security interests of the United States.
(d) Hearings
(1) In general
The Commission or, at its direction, any panel or member of the Commission, may for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places, take testimony, receive evidence, and administer oaths to the extent that the Commission or any panel or member considers advisable.
(2) Information
The Commission may secure directly from the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and any other Federal department or agency information that the Commission considers necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its duties under this section, except the provision of intelligence information to the Commission shall be made with due regard for the protection from unauthorized disclosure of classified information relating to sensitive intelligence sources and methods or other exceptionally sensitive matters, under procedures approved by the Director of Central Intelligence.
(3) Security
The Office of Senate Security shall—
(A) provide classified storage and meeting and hearing spaces, when necessary, for the Commission; and
(B) assist members and staff of the Commission in obtaining security clearances.
(4) Security clearances
All members of the Commission and appropriate staff shall be sworn and hold appropriate security clearances.
(e) Commission personnel matters
(1) Compensation of members
Members of the Commission shall be compensated in the same manner provided for the compensation of members of the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127 (g)(1) andsection 127(g)(6) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act (19 U.S.C. 2213 note).
(2) Travel expenses
Travel expenses of the Commission shall be allowed in the same manner provided for the allowance of the travel expenses of the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127(g)(2) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act.
(3) Staff
An executive director and other additional personnel for the Commission shall be appointed, compensated, and terminated in the same manner provided for the appointment, compensation, and termination of the executive director and other personnel of the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127 (g)(3) andsection 127(g)(6) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act. The executive director and any personnel who are employees of the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission shall be employees under section 2105 of title 5 for purposes of chapters 63, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, and 90 of that title.
(4) Detail of government employees
Federal Government employees may be detailed to the Commission in the same manner provided for the detail of Federal Government employees to the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127(g)(4) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act.
(5) Foreign travel for official purposes
Foreign travel for official purposes by members and staff of the Commission may be authorized by either the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Commission.
(6) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services
The Chairman of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services for the Commission in the same manner provided for the procurement of temporary and intermittent services for the Trade Deficit Review Commission under section 127(g)(5) of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act.
(f) Authorization of appropriations
(1) In general
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for fiscal year 2001, and for each fiscal year thereafter, such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its functions under this section.
(2) Availability
Amounts appropriated to the Commission shall remain available until expended.
(g) Applicability of FACA
The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall apply to the activities of the Commission.
(h) Effective date
This section shall take effect on the first day of the 107th Congress.

Source

(Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title XII, § 1238], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–334; Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, §§ 645(a), 648,Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 556; Pub. L. 108–7, div. P, § 2(b)(1), (c)(1),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 552; Pub. L. 109–108, title VI, § 635(b),Nov. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2347; Pub. L. 110–161, div. J, title I, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2285.)
References in Text

Section 127 of the Trade Deficit Review Commission Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (e), is section 127 ofPub. L. 105–277, which is set out in a note under section 2213 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
The first day of the 107th Congress, referred to in subsec. (h), was Jan. 3, 2001.
Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001, and not as part of the U.S.-China Relations Act of 2000 which comprises this chapter.
Amendments

2007—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–161substituted “December” for “June”.
2005—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–108amended heading and text of subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Commission.”
2003—Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(A), inserted “Economic and” before “Security” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(B), inserted “Economic and” before “Security”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(C)(i), inserted “Economic and” before “Security” in heading.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(C)(ii), inserted “Economic and” before “Security”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(C)(iii)(I), which directed the amendment of introductory provisions by inserting “Economic and” before “Security”, could not be executed because “Security” does not appear.
Subsec. (b)(3)(F). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(c)(1), added subpar. (F) and struck out former subpar. (F) which read as follows: “members shall be appointed to the Commission not later than 30 days after the date on which each new Congress convenes;”.
Subsec. (b)(3)(H), (4), (e)(1), (2). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(C)(iii)(II), (iv), (D)(i), (ii), which directed insertion of “Economic and” before “Security”, could not be executed because “Security” does not appear.
Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(D)(iii)(II), inserted “Economic and” before “Security” in second sentence.
Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(D)(iii)(I), which directed the amendment of first sentence by inserting “Economic and” before “Security”, could not be executed because “Security” does not appear.
Subsec. (e)(4), (6). Pub. L. 108–7, § 2(b)(1)(D)(iv), (v), which directed the amendment of pars. (4) and (6) by inserting “Economic and” before “Security”, could not be executed because “Security” does not appear.
2001—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–67, § 648, substituted “June” for “March”.
Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 107–67, § 645(a), inserted at end “The executive director and any personnel who are employees of the United States-China Security Review Commission shall be employees under section 2105 of title 5 for purposes of chapters 63, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, and 90 of that title.”
Change of Name

Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) ofPub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.
Pub. L. 108–7, div. P, § 2(b)(2),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 552, provided that: “Any reference in any Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or relating to the United States-China Security Review Commission shall be deemed to refer to the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission.”
Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–7, div. P, § 2(c)(3),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 554, provided that: “This section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 20, 2003].”
Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–67, title VI, § 645(b),Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 556, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on January 3, 2001.”
Responsibilities of the Commission

Pub. L. 108–7, div. P, § 2(c)(2),Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 553, provided that: “The United States-China Commission shall focus, in lieu of any other areas of work or study, on the following:
“(A) Proliferation practices.—The Commission shall analyze and assess the Chinese role in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and other weapons (including dual use technologies) to terrorist-sponsoring states, and suggest possible steps which the United States might take, including economic sanctions, to encourage the Chinese to stop such practices.
“(B) Economic reforms and united states economic transfers.—The Commission shall analyze and assess the qualitative and quantitative nature of the shift of United States production activities to China, including the relocation of high-technology, manufacturing, and R&D facilities; the impact of these transfers on United States national security, including political influence by the Chinese Government over American firms, dependence of the United States national security industrial base on Chinese imports, the adequacy of United States export control laws, and the effect of these transfers on United States economic security, employment, and the standard of living of the American people; analyze China’s national budget and assess China’s fiscal strength to address internal instability problems and assess the likelihood of externalization of such problems.
“(C) Energy.—The Commission shall evaluate and assess how China’s large and growing economy will impact upon world energy supplies and the role the United States can play, including joint R&D efforts and technological assistance, in influencing China’s energy policy.
“(D) United states capital markets.—The Commission shall evaluate the extent of Chinese access to, and use of United States capital markets, and whether the existing disclosure and transparency rules are adequate to identify Chinese companies which are active in United States markets and are also engaged in proliferation activities or other activities harmful to United States security interests.
“(E) Corporate reporting.—The Commission shall assess United States trade and investment relationship with China, including the need for corporate reporting on United States investments in China and incentives that China may be offering to United States corporations to relocate production and R&D to China.
“(F) Regional economic and security impacts.—The Commission shall assess the extent of China’s ‘hollowing-out’ of Asian manufacturing economies, and the impact on United States economic and security interests in the region; review the triangular economic and security relationship among the United States, Taipei and Beijing, including Beijing’s military modernization and force deployments aimed at Taipei, and the adequacy of United States executive branch coordination and consultation with Congress on United States arms sales and defense relationship with Taipei.
“(G) United states-china bilateral programs.—The Commission shall assess science and technology programs to evaluate if the United States is developing an adequate coordinating mechanism with appropriate review by the intelligence community with Congress; assess the degree of non-compliance by China and United States-China agreements on prison labor imports and intellectual property rights; evaluate United States enforcement policies; and recommend what new measures the United States Government might take to strengthen our laws and enforcement activities and to encourage compliance by the Chinese.
“(H) World trade organization compliance.—The Commission shall review China’s record of compliance to date with its accession agreement to the WTO, and explore what incentives and policy initiatives should be pursued to promote further compliance by China.
“(I) Media control.—The Commission shall evaluate Chinese government efforts to influence and control perceptions of the United States and its policies through the internet, the Chinese print and electronic media, and Chinese internal propaganda.”
Similar provisions were contained in the following appropriation act:
Pub. L. 109–108, title VI, § 635(a),Nov. 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 2346.

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22 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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