25 U.S. Code § 1302 - Constitutional rights

(a) In general
No Indian tribe in exercising powers of self-government shall—
(1) make or enforce any law prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition for a redress of grievances;
(2) violate the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable search and seizures, nor issue warrants, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or thing to be seized;
(3) subject any person for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy;
(4) compel any person in any criminal case to be a witness against himself;
(5) take any private property for a public use without just compensation;
(6) deny to any person in a criminal proceeding the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and at his own expense to have the assistance of counsel for his defense (except as provided in subsection (b));
(7)
(A) require excessive bail, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel and unusual punishments;
(B) except as provided in subparagraph (C), impose for conviction of any 1 offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 1 year or a fine of $5,000, or both;
(C) subject to subsection (b), impose for conviction of any 1 offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 3 years or a fine of $15,000, or both; or
(D) impose on a person in a criminal proceeding a total penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 9 years;
(8) deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws or deprive any person of liberty or property without due process of law;
(9) pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law; or
(10) deny to any person accused of an offense punishable by imprisonment the right, upon request, to a trial by jury of not less than six persons.
(b) Offenses subject to greater than 1-year imprisonment or a fine greater than $5,000
A tribal court may subject a defendant to a term of imprisonment greater than 1 year but not to exceed 3 years for any 1 offense, or a fine greater than $5,000 but not to exceed $15,000, or both, if the defendant is a person accused of a criminal offense who—
(1) has been previously convicted of the same or a comparable offense by any jurisdiction in the United States; or
(2) is being prosecuted for an offense comparable to an offense that would be punishable by more than 1 year of imprisonment if prosecuted by the United States or any of the States.
(c) Rights of defendants
In a criminal proceeding in which an Indian tribe, in exercising powers of self-government, imposes a total term of imprisonment of more than 1 year on a defendant, the Indian tribe shall—
(1) provide to the defendant the right to effective assistance of counsel at least equal to that guaranteed by the United States Constitution; and
(2) at the expense of the tribal government, provide an indigent defendant the assistance of a defense attorney licensed to practice law by any jurisdiction in the United States that applies appropriate professional licensing standards and effectively ensures the competence and professional responsibility of its licensed attorneys;
(3) require that the judge presiding over the criminal proceeding—
(A) has sufficient legal training to preside over criminal proceedings; and
(B) is licensed to practice law by any jurisdiction in the United States;
(4) prior to charging the defendant, make publicly available the criminal laws (including regulations and interpretative documents), rules of evidence, and rules of criminal procedure (including rules governing the recusal of judges in appropriate circumstances) of the tribal government; and
(5) maintain a record of the criminal proceeding, including an audio or other recording of the trial proceeding.
(d) Sentences
In the case of a defendant sentenced in accordance with subsections (b) and (c), a tribal court may require the defendant—
(1) to serve the sentence—
(A) in a tribal correctional center that has been approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs for long-term incarceration, in accordance with guidelines to be developed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (in consultation with Indian tribes) not later than 180 days after July 29, 2010;
(B) in the nearest appropriate Federal facility, at the expense of the United States pursuant to the Bureau of Prisons tribal prisoner pilot program described in section 304(c)  [1] of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010;
(C) in a State or local government-approved detention or correctional center pursuant to an agreement between the Indian tribe and the State or local government; or
(D) in an alternative rehabilitation center of an Indian tribe; or
(2) to serve another alternative form of punishment, as determined by the tribal court judge pursuant to tribal law.
(e) Definition of offense
In this section, the term “offense” means a violation of a criminal law.
(f) Effect of section
Nothing in this section affects the obligation of the United States, or any State government that has been delegated authority by the United States, to investigate and prosecute any criminal violation in Indian country.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(Pub. L. 90–284, title II, § 202,Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 77; Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, § 4217,Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–146; Pub. L. 111–211, title II, § 234(a),July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2279.)
References in Text

Section 304(c) of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B), probably means section 234(c) of title II of Pub. L. 111–211, which is set out as a note below. See par. (13) of H. Con. Res. 304 (111th Congress), which is not classified to the Code.
Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–211, § 234(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted subsec. heading.
Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 111–211, § 234(a)(2)(A), inserted “(except as provided in subsection (b))” after “assistance of counsel for his defense”. Amendment was executed to reflect the probable intent of Congress, notwithstanding errors in the directory language in quoting the text to be inserted.
Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 111–211, § 234(a)(2)(B), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: “require excessive bail, impose excessive fines, inflict cruel and unusual punishments, and in no event impose for conviction of any one offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of one year and a fine of $5,000, or both;”.
Subsecs. (b) to (f). Pub. L. 111–211, § 234(a)(3), added subsecs. (b) to (f).
1986—Par. (7). Pub. L. 99–570, which directed that “for a term of one year and a fine of $5,000, or both” be substituted for “for a term of six months and a fine of $500, or both”, was executed by making the substitution for “for a term of six months or a fine of $500, or both” as the probable intent of Congress.
Bureau of Prisons Tribal Prisoner Pilot Program

Pub. L. 111–211, title II, § 234(c),July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2281, provided that:
“(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this title [July 29, 2010], the Director of the Bureau of Prisons shall establish a pilot program under which the Bureau of Prisons shall accept offenders convicted in tribal court pursuant to section 202 of the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (25 U.S.C. 1302) (as amended by this section), subject to the conditions described in paragraph (2).
“(2) Conditions.—
“(A) In general.—As a condition of participation in the pilot program described in paragraph (1), the tribal court shall submit to the Attorney General a request for confinement of the offender, for approval by the Attorney General (or a designee) by not later than 30 days after the date of submission.
“(B) Limitations.—Requests for confinement shall be limited to offenders convicted of a violent crime (comparable to the violent crimes described in section 1153 (a) of title 18, United States Code) for which the sentence includes a term of imprisonment of 2 or more years.
“(C) Custody conditions.—The imprisonment by the Bureau of Prisons shall be subject to the conditions described in section 5003 of title 18, United States Code, regarding the custody of State offenders, except that the offender shall be placed in the nearest available and appropriate Federal facility, and imprisoned at the expense of the United States.
“(D) Cap.—The Bureau of Prisons shall confine not more than 100 tribal offenders at any time.
“(3) Rescinding requests.—
“(A) In general.—The applicable tribal government shall retain the authority to rescind the request for confinement of a tribal offender by the Bureau of Prisons under this paragraph at any time during the sentence of the offender.
“(B) Return to tribal custody.—On rescission of a request under subparagraph (A), a tribal offender shall be returned to tribal custody.
“(4) Reassessment.—If tribal court demand for participation in this pilot program exceeds 100 tribal offenders, a representative of the Bureau of Prisons shall notify Congress.
“(5) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of establishment of the pilot program, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report describing the status of the program, including recommendations regarding the future of the program, if any.
“(6) Termination.—Except as otherwise provided by an Act of Congress, the pilot program under this paragraph shall expire on the date that is 4 years after the date on which the program is established.”
[For definition of “tribal government” as used in section 234(c) ofPub. L. 111–211, set out above, see section 203(a) ofPub. L. 111–211, set out as a note under section 2801 of this title.]
Purpose of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, § 4217,Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–146, provided in part that amendment of par. (7) of this section was to “enhance the ability of tribal governments to prevent and penalize the traffic of illegal narcotics on Indian reservations”.

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.