25 U.S. Code § 1304 - Tribal jurisdiction over crimes of domestic violence

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(a) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Dating violence
The term “dating violence” means violence committed by a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim, as determined by the length of the relationship, the type of relationship, and the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.
(2) Domestic violence
The term “domestic violence” means violence committed by a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate partner, or by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic- or family- violence laws of an Indian tribe that has jurisdiction over the Indian country where the violence occurs.
(3) Indian country
The term “Indian country” has the meaning given the term in section 1151 of title 18.
(4) Participating tribe
The term “participating tribe” means an Indian tribe that elects to exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over the Indian country of that Indian tribe.
(5) Protection order
The term “protection order”—
(A) means any injunction, restraining order, or other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence against, contact or communication with, or physical proximity to, another person; and
(B) includes any temporary or final order issued by a civil or criminal court, whether obtained by filing an independent action or as a pendent lite order in another proceeding, if the civil or criminal order was issued in response to a complaint, petition, or motion filed by or on behalf of a person seeking protection.
(6) Special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction
The term “special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction” means the criminal jurisdiction that a participating tribe may exercise under this section but could not otherwise exercise.
(7) Spouse or intimate partner
The term “spouse or intimate partner” has the meaning given the term in section 2266 of title 18.
(b) Nature of the criminal jurisdiction
(1) In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to all powers of self-government recognized and affirmed by sections 1301 and 1303 of this title, the powers of self-government of a participating tribe include the inherent power of that tribe, which is hereby recognized and affirmed, to exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over all persons.
(2) Concurrent jurisdiction
The exercise of special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction by a participating tribe shall be concurrent with the jurisdiction of the United States, of a State, or of both.
(3) Applicability
Nothing in this section—
(A) creates or eliminates any Federal or State criminal jurisdiction over Indian country; or
(B) affects the authority of the United States or any State government that has been delegated authority by the United States to investigate and prosecute a criminal violation in Indian country.
(4) Exceptions
(A) Victim and defendant are both non-Indians
(i) In general A participating tribe may not exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over an alleged offense if neither the defendant nor the alleged victim is an Indian.
(ii) Definition of victim In this subparagraph and with respect to a criminal proceeding in which a participating tribe exercises special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction based on a violation of a protection order, the term “victim” means a person specifically protected by a protection order that the defendant allegedly violated.
(B) Defendant lacks ties to the Indian tribe
A participating tribe may exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over a defendant only if the defendant—
(i) resides in the Indian country of the participating tribe;
(ii) is employed in the Indian country of the participating tribe; or
(iii) is a spouse, intimate partner, or dating partner of—
(I) a member of the participating tribe; or
(II) an Indian who resides in the Indian country of the participating tribe.
(c) Criminal conduct
A participating tribe may exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over a defendant for criminal conduct that falls into one or more of the following categories:
(1) Domestic violence and dating violence
An act of domestic violence or dating violence that occurs in the Indian country of the participating tribe.
(2) Violations of protection orders
An act that—
(A) occurs in the Indian country of the participating tribe; and
(B) violates the portion of a protection order that—
(i) prohibits or provides protection against violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence against, contact or communication with, or physical proximity to, another person;
(ii) was issued against the defendant;
(iii) is enforceable by the participating tribe; and
(iv) is consistent with section 2265 (b) of title 18.
(d) Rights of defendants
In a criminal proceeding in which a participating tribe exercises special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, the participating tribe shall provide to the defendant—
(1) all applicable rights under this Act;
(2) if a term of imprisonment of any length may be imposed, all rights described in section 1302 (c) of this title;
(3) the right to a trial by an impartial jury that is drawn from sources that—
(A) reflect a fair cross section of the community; and
(B) do not systematically exclude any distinctive group in the community, including non-Indians; and
(4) all other rights whose protection is necessary under the Constitution of the United States in order for Congress to recognize and affirm the inherent power of the participating tribe to exercise special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction over the defendant.
(e) Petitions to stay detention
(1) In general
A person who has filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in a court of the United States under section 1303 of this title may petition that court to stay further detention of that person by the participating tribe.
(2) Grant of stay
A court shall grant a stay described in paragraph (1) if the court—
(A) finds that there is a substantial likelihood that the habeas corpus petition will be granted; and
(B) after giving each alleged victim in the matter an opportunity to be heard, finds by clear and convincing evidence that under conditions imposed by the court, the petitioner is not likely to flee or pose a danger to any person or the community if released.
(3) Notice
An Indian tribe that has ordered the detention of any person has a duty to timely notify such person of his rights and privileges under this subsection and under section 1303 of this title.
(f) Grants to tribal governments
The Attorney General may award grants to the governments of Indian tribes (or to authorized designees of those governments)—
(1) to strengthen tribal criminal justice systems to assist Indian tribes in exercising special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, including—
(A) law enforcement (including the capacity of law enforcement or court personnel to enter information into and obtain information from national crime information databases);
(B) prosecution;
(C) trial and appellate courts;
(D) probation systems;
(E) detention and correctional facilities;
(F) alternative rehabilitation centers;
(G) culturally appropriate services and assistance for victims and their families; and
(H) criminal codes and rules of criminal procedure, appellate procedure, and evidence;
(2) to provide indigent criminal defendants with the effective assistance of licensed defense counsel, at no cost to the defendant, in criminal proceedings in which a participating tribe prosecutes a crime of domestic violence or dating violence or a criminal violation of a protection order;
(3) to ensure that, in criminal proceedings in which a participating tribe exercises special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, jurors are summoned, selected, and instructed in a manner consistent with all applicable requirements; and
(4) to accord victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and violations of protection orders rights that are similar to the rights of a crime victim described in section 3771 (a) of title 18, consistent with tribal law and custom.
(g) Supplement, not supplant
Amounts made available under this section shall supplement and not supplant any other Federal, State, tribal, or local government amounts made available to carry out activities described in this section.
(h) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018 to carry out subsection (f) and to provide training, technical assistance, data collection, and evaluation of the criminal justice systems of participating tribes.

Source

(Pub. L. 90–284, title II, § 204, as added Pub. L. 113–4, title IX, § 904,Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 120.)
References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), probably means title II of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 77, popularly known as the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, which is classified generally to this subchapter.
Effective Dates; Pilot Project.

Pub. L. 113–4, title IX, § 908,Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 125, provided that:
“(a) General Effective Date.—Except as provided in section 4 [18 U.S.C. 2261 note] and subsection (b) of this section, the amendments made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 7, 2013].
“(b) Effective Date for Special Domestic-violence Criminal Jurisdiction.—
“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsections (b) through (d) ofsection 204 of Public Law 90–284 [25 U.S.C. 1304(b)–(d)] (as added by section 904) shall take effect on the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 7, 2013].
“(2) Pilot project.—
“(A) In general.—At any time during the 2-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act, an Indian tribe may ask the Attorney General to designate the tribe as a participating tribe under section 204(a) ofPublic Law 90–284 [25 U.S.C. 1304(a)] on an accelerated basis.
“(B) Procedure.—The Attorney General may grant a request under subparagraph (A) after coordinating with the Secretary of the Interior, consulting with affected Indian tribes, and concluding that the criminal justice system of the requesting tribe has adequate safeguards in place to protect defendants’ rights, consistent with section 204 ofPublic Law 90–284 [25 U.S.C. 1304].
“(C) Effective dates for pilot projects.—An Indian tribe designated as a participating tribe under this paragraph may commence exercising special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction pursuant to subsections (b) through (d) ofsection 204 of Public Law 90–284 on a date established by the Attorney General, after consultation with that Indian tribe, but in no event later than the date that is 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act.”

 

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