The ownership or control of Native American cultural items which are excavated or discovered on Federal or tribal lands after November 16, 1990, shall be (with priority given in the order listed)—
(1)in the case of Native American human remains and associated funerary objects, in the lineal descendants of the Native American; or
(2)in any case in which such lineal descendants cannot be ascertained, and in the case of unassociated funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony—
(A)in the Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization on whose tribal land such objects or remains were discovered;
(B)in the Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization which has the closest cultural affiliation with such remains or objects and which, upon notice, states a claim for such remains or objects; or
(C)if the cultural affiliation of the objects cannot be reasonably ascertained and if the objects were discovered on Federal land that is recognized by a final judgment of the Indian Claims Commission or the United States Court of Claims as the aboriginal land of some Indian tribe—
(1)in the Indian tribe that is recognized as aboriginally occupying the area in which the objects were discovered, if upon notice, such tribe states a claim for such remains or objects, or
(2)if it can be shown by a preponderance of the evidence that a different tribe has a stronger cultural relationship with the remains or objects than the tribe or organization specified in paragraph (1), in the Indian tribe that has the strongest demonstrated relationship, if upon notice, such tribe states a claim for such remains or objects.
(b) Unclaimed Native American human remains and objects
Native American cultural items not claimed under subsection (a) of this section shall be disposed of in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary in consultation with the review committee established under section
3006 of this title, Native American groups, representatives of museums and the scientific community.
(c) Intentional excavation and removal of Native American human remains and objects
The intentional removal from or excavation of Native American cultural items from Federal or tribal lands for purposes of discovery, study, or removal of such items is permitted only if—
(1)such items are excavated or removed pursuant to a permit issued under section
470cc of title
16 which shall be consistent with this chapter;
(2)such items are excavated or removed after consultation with or, in the case of tribal lands, consent of the appropriate (if any) Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization;
(3)the ownership and right of control of the disposition of such items shall be as provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section; and
(4)proof of consultation or consent under paragraph (2) is shown.
(d) Inadvertent discovery of Native American remains and objects
(1)Any person who knows, or has reason to know, that such person has discovered Native American cultural items on Federal or tribal lands after November 16, 1990, shall notify, in writing, the Secretary of the Department, or head of any other agency or instrumentality of the United States, having primary management authority with respect to Federal lands and the appropriate Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization with respect to tribal lands, if known or readily ascertainable, and, in the case of lands that have been selected by an Alaska Native Corporation or group organized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.], the appropriate corporation or group. If the discovery occurred in connection with an activity, including (but not limited to) construction, mining, logging, and agriculture, the person shall cease the activity in the area of the discovery, make a reasonable effort to protect the items discovered before resuming such activity, and provide notice under this subsection. Following the notification under this subsection, and upon certification by the Secretary of the department or the head of any agency or instrumentality of the United States or the appropriate Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization that notification has been received, the activity may resume after 30 days of such certification.
(2)The disposition of and control over any cultural items excavated or removed under this subsection shall be determined as provided for in this section.
(3)If the Secretary of the Interior consents, the responsibilities (in whole or in part) under paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Secretary of any department (other than the Department of the Interior) or the head of any other agency or instrumentality may be delegated to the Secretary with respect to any land managed by such other Secretary or agency head.
Nothing in this section shall prevent the governing body of an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization from expressly relinquishing control over any Native American human remains, or title to or control over any funerary object, or sacred object.
The Indian Claims Commission, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), terminated Sept. 30, 1978. See Codification note set out under former section
70 et seq. of this title.
The United States Court of Claims, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), and the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals were merged effective Oct. 1, 1982, into a new United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit by Pub. L. 97–164, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 25, which also created a United States Claims Court [now United States Court of Federal Claims] that inherited the trial jurisdiction of the Court of Claims. See sections
171 et seq., 791 et seq., and 1491 et seq. of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), probably means the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, and which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
1601 of Title
43 and Tables.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.