26 U.S. Code § 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

(a) Effect on distributees
(1) General rule
If—
(A) a corporation (referred to in this section as the “distributing corporation”)—
(i) distributes to a shareholder, with respect to its stock, or
(ii) distributes to a security holder, in exchange for its securities,
solely stock or securities of a corporation (referred to in this section as “controlled corporation”) which it controls immediately before the distribution,
(B) the transaction was not used principally as a device for the distribution of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation or the controlled corporation or both (but the mere fact that subsequent to the distribution stock or securities in one or more of such corporations are sold or exchanged by all or some of the distributees (other than pursuant to an arrangement negotiated or agreed upon prior to such distribution) shall not be construed to mean that the transaction was used principally as such a device),
(C) the requirements of subsection (b) (relating to active businesses) are satisfied, and
(D) as part of the distribution, the distributing corporation distributes—
(i) all of the stock and securities in the controlled corporation held by it immediately before the distribution, or
(ii) an amount of stock in the controlled corporation constituting control within the meaning of section 368 (c), and it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the retention by the distributing corporation of stock (or stock and securities) in the controlled corporation was not in pursuance of a plan having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax,
then no gain or loss shall be recognized to (and no amount shall be includible in the income of) such shareholder or security holder on the receipt of such stock or securities.
(2) Non pro rata distributions, etc.
Paragraph (1) shall be applied without regard to the following:
(A) whether or not the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the distributing corporation,
(B) whether or not the shareholder surrenders stock in the distributing corporation, and
(C) whether or not the distribution is in pursuance of a plan of reorganization (within the meaning of section 368 (a)(1)(D)).
(3) Limitations
(A) Excess principal amount
Paragraph (1) shall not apply if—
(i) the principal amount of the securities in the controlled corporation which are received exceeds the principal amount of the securities which are surrendered in connection with such distribution, or
(ii) securities in the controlled corporation are received and no securities are surrendered in connection with such distribution.
(B) Stock acquired in taxable transactions within 5 years treated as boot
For purposes of this section (other than paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection) and so much of section 356 as relates to this section, stock of a controlled corporation acquired by the distributing corporation by reason of any transaction—
(i) which occurs within 5 years of the distribution of such stock, and
(ii) in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part,
shall not be treated as stock of such controlled corporation, but as other property.
(C) Property attributable to accrued interest
Neither paragraph (1) nor so much of section 356 as relates to paragraph (1) shall apply to the extent that any stock (including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351 (g)(2)), securities, or other property received is attributable to interest which has accrued on securities on or after the beginning of the holder’s holding period.
(D) Nonqualified preferred stock
Nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351 (g)(2)) received in a distribution with respect to stock other than nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) shall not be treated as stock or securities.
(4) Cross references
(A) For treatment of the exchange if any property is received which is not permitted to be received under this subsection (including nonqualified preferred stock and an excess principal amount of securities received over securities surrendered, but not including property to which paragraph (3)(C) applies), see section 356.
(B) For treatment of accrued interest in the case of an exchange described in paragraph (3)(C), see section 61.
(b) Requirements as to active business
(1) In general
Subsection (a) shall apply only if either—
(A) the distributing corporation, and the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than one controlled corporation is distributed, each of such corporations), is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business, or
(B) immediately before the distribution, the distributing corporation had no assets other than stock or securities in the controlled corporations and each of the controlled corporations is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business.
(2) Definition
For purposes of paragraph (1), a corporation shall be treated as engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business if and only if—
(A) it is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business,
(B) such trade or business has been actively conducted throughout the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution,
(C) such trade or business was not acquired within the period described in subparagraph (B) in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, and
(D) control of a corporation which (at the time of acquisition of control) was conducting such trade or business—
(i) was not acquired by any distributee corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations, whether through the distributing corporation or otherwise) within the period described in subparagraph (B) and was not acquired by the distributing corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations) within such period, or
(ii) was so acquired by any such corporation within such period, but, in each case in which such control was so acquired, it was so acquired, only by reason of transactions in which gain or loss was not recognized in whole or in part, or only by reason of such transactions combined with acquisitions before the beginning of such period.
For purposes of subparagraph (D), all distributee corporations which are members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a) without regard to section 1504 (b)) shall be treated as 1 distributee corporation.
(3) Special rules for determining active conduct in the case of affiliated groups
(A) In general
For purposes of determining whether a corporation meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(A), all members of such corporation’s separate affiliated group shall be treated as one corporation.
(B) Separate affiliated group
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “separate affiliated group” means, with respect to any corporation, the affiliated group which would be determined under section 1504 (a) if such corporation were the common parent and section 1504 (b) did not apply.
(C) Treatment of trade or business conducted by acquired member
If a corporation became a member of a separate affiliated group as a result of one or more transactions in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, any trade or business conducted by such corporation (at the time that such corporation became such a member) shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as acquired in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part.
(D) Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations which provide for the proper application of subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (2), and modify the application of subsection (a)(3)(B), in connection with the application of this paragraph.
(c) Taxability of corporation on distribution
(1) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation on any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization.
(2) Distribution of appreciated property
(A) In general
If—
(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than qualified property, and
(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),
then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.
(B) Qualified property
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified property” means any stock or securities in the controlled corporation.
(C) Treatment of liabilities
If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.
(3) Coordination with sections 311 and 336(a)
Sections 311 and 336 (a) shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1).
(d) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation
(1) In general
In the case of a disqualified distribution, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361 (c)(2).
(2) Disqualified distribution
For purposes of this subsection, the term “disqualified distribution” means any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies if, immediately after the distribution—
(A) any person holds disqualified stock in the distributing corporation which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation, or
(B) any person holds disqualified stock in the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than 1 controlled corporation is distributed, in any controlled corporation) which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation.
(3) Disqualified stock
For purposes of this subsection, the term “disqualified stock” means—
(A) any stock in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, and
(B) any stock in any controlled corporation—
(i) acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, or
(ii) received in the distribution to the extent attributable to distributions on—
(I) stock described in subparagraph (A), or
(II) any securities in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase after October 9, 1990, and during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution.
(4) 50-percent or greater interest
For purposes of this subsection, the term “50-percent or greater interest” means stock possessing at least 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock.
(5) Purchase
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) In general
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term “purchase” means any acquisition but only if—
(i) the basis of the property acquired in the hands of the acquirer is not determined
(I) in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of the person from whom acquired, or
(II) under section 1014 (a), and
(ii) the property is not acquired in an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, or 356 applies.
(B) Certain section 351 exchanges treated as purchases
The term “purchase” includes any acquisition of property in an exchange to which section 351 applies to the extent such property is acquired in exchange for—
(i) any cash or cash item,
(ii) any marketable stock or security, or
(iii) any debt of the transferor.
(C) Carryover basis transactions
If—
(i) any person acquires property from another person who acquired such property by purchase (as determined under this paragraph with regard to this subparagraph), and
(ii) the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such acquirer is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such other person,
such acquirer shall be treated as having acquired such property by purchase on the date it was so acquired by such other person.
(6) Special rule where substantial diminution of risk
(A) In general
If this paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period, the running of any 5-year period set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) (whichever applies) shall be suspended during such period.
(B) Property to which suspension applies
This paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period during which the holder’s risk of loss with respect to such stock or securities, or with respect to any portion of the activities of the corporation, is (directly or indirectly) substantially diminished by—
(i) an option,
(ii) a short sale,
(iii) any special class of stock, or
(iv) any other device or transaction.
(7) Aggregation rules
(A) In general
For purposes of this subsection, a person and all persons related to such person (within the meaning of section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1)) shall be treated as one person.
(B) Persons acting pursuant to plans or arrangements
If two or more persons act pursuant to a plan or arrangement with respect to acquisitions of stock or securities in the distributing corporation or controlled corporation, such persons shall be treated as one person for purposes of this subsection.
(8) Attribution from entities
(A) In general
Paragraph (2) of section 318 (a) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation (determined by substituting “10 percent” for “50 percent” in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph (2) and by treating any reference to stock as including a reference to securities).
(B) Deemed purchase rule
If—
(i) any person acquires by purchase an interest in any entity, and
(ii) such person is treated under subparagraph (A) as holding any stock or securities by reason of holding such interest,
such stock or securities shall be treated as acquired by purchase by such person on the later of the date of the purchase of the interest in such entity or the date such stock or securities are acquired by purchase by such entity.
(9) Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including—
(A) regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subsection through the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and
(B) regulations modifying the definition of the term “purchase”.
(e) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with acquisitions
(1) General rule
If there is a distribution to which this subsection applies, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361 (c)(2).
(2) Distributions to which subsection applies
(A) In general
This subsection shall apply to any distribution—
(i) to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies, and
(ii) which is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation.
(B) Plan presumed to exist in certain cases
If 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation during the 4-year period beginning on the date which is 2 years before the date of the distribution, such acquisition shall be treated as pursuant to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(ii) unless it is established that the distribution and the acquisition are not pursuant to a plan or series of related transactions.
(C) Certain plans disregarded
A plan (or series of related transactions) shall not be treated as described in subparagraph (A)(ii) if, immediately after the completion of such plan or transactions, the distributing corporation and all controlled corporations are members of a single affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 without regard to subsection (b) thereof).
(D) Coordination with subsection (d)
This subsection shall not apply to any distribution to which subsection (d) applies.
(3) Special rules relating to acquisitions
(A) Certain acquisitions not taken into account
Except as provided in regulations, the following acquisitions shall not be taken into account in applying paragraph (2)(A)(ii):
(i) The acquisition of stock in any controlled corporation by the distributing corporation.
(ii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in the distributing corporation.
(iii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any successor corporation of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in such distributing or controlled corporation.
(iv) The acquisition of stock in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation to the extent that the percentage of stock owned directly or indirectly in such corporation by each person owning stock in such corporation immediately before the acquisition does not decrease.
This subparagraph shall not apply to any acquisition if the stock held before the acquisition was acquired pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii).
(B) Asset acquisitions
Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this subsection, if the assets of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation are acquired by a successor corporation in a transaction described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) of section 368 (a)(1) or any other transaction specified in regulations by the Secretary, the shareholders (immediately before the acquisition) of the corporation acquiring such assets shall be treated as acquiring stock in the corporation from which the assets were acquired.
(4) Definition and special rules
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) 50-percent or greater interest
The term “50-percent or greater interest” has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).
(B) Distributions in title 11 or similar case
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution made in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368 (a)(3)).
(C) Aggregation and attribution rules
(i) Aggregation The rules of paragraph (7)(A) of subsection (d) shall apply.
(ii) Attribution Section 318 (a)(2) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation. Except as provided in regulations, section 318 (a)(2)(C) shall be applied without regard to the phrase “50 percent or more in value” for purposes of the preceding sentence.
(D) Successors and predecessors
For purposes of this subsection, any reference to a controlled corporation or a distributing corporation shall include a reference to any predecessor or successor of such corporation.
(E) Statute of limitations
If there is a distribution to which paragraph (1) applies—
(i) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of the gain recognized under this subsection by reason of such distribution shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) that such distribution occurred, and
(ii) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.
(5) Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations—
(A) providing for the application of this subsection where there is more than 1 controlled corporation,
(B) treating 2 or more distributions as 1 distribution where necessary to prevent the avoidance of such purposes, and
(C) providing for the application of rules similar to the rules of subsection (d)(6) where appropriate for purposes of paragraph (2)(B).
(f) Section not to apply to certain intragroup distributions
Except as provided in regulations, this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to the distribution of stock from 1 member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a)) to another member of such group if such distribution is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) described in subsection (e)(2)(A)(ii) (determined after the application of subsection (e)).
(g) Section not to apply to distributions involving disqualified investment corporations
(1) In general
This section (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to any distribution which is part of a transaction if—
(A) either the distributing corporation or controlled corporation is, immediately after the transaction, a disqualified investment corporation, and
(B) any person holds, immediately after the transaction, a 50-percent or greater interest in any disqualified investment corporation, but only if such person did not hold such an interest in such corporation immediately before the transaction.
(2) Disqualified investment corporation
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) In general
The term “disqualified investment corporation” means any distributing or controlled corporation if the fair market value of the investment assets of the corporation is—
(i) in the case of distributions after the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this subsection, 2/3 or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation, and
(ii) in the case of distributions during such 1-year period, 3/4 or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation.
(B) Investment assets
(i) In general Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the term “investment assets” means—
(I) cash,
(II) any stock or securities in a corporation,
(III) any interest in a partnership,
(IV) any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness,
(V) any option, forward or futures contract, notional principal contract, or derivative,
(VI) foreign currency, or
(VII) any similar asset.
(ii) Exception for assets used in active conduct of certain financial trades or businesses Such term shall not include any asset which is held for use in the active and regular conduct of—
(I) a lending or finance business (within the meaning of section 954 (h)(4)),
(II) a banking business through a bank (as defined in section 581), a domestic building and loan association (within the meaning of section 7701 (a)(19)), or any similar institution specified by the Secretary, or
(III) an insurance business if the conduct of the business is licensed, authorized, or regulated by an applicable insurance regulatory body.
 This clause shall only apply with respect to any business if substantially all of the income of the business is derived from persons who are not related (within the meaning of section 267 (b) or 707 (b)(1)) to the person conducting the business.
(iii) Exception for securities marked to market Such term shall not include any security (as defined in section 475 (c)(2)) which is held by a dealer in securities and to which section 475 (a) applies.
(iv) Stock or securities in a 20-percent controlled entity
(I) In general Such term shall not include any stock and securities in, or any asset described in subclause (IV) or (V) of clause (i) issued by, a corporation which is a 20-percent controlled entity with respect to the distributing or controlled corporation.
(II) Look-thru rule The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any 20-percent controlled entity.
(III) 20-percent controlled entity For purposes of this clause, the term “20-percent controlled entity” means, with respect to any distributing or controlled corporation, any corporation with respect to which the distributing or controlled corporation owns directly or indirectly stock meeting the requirements of section 1504 (a)(2), except that such section shall be applied by substituting “20 percent” for “80 percent” and without regard to stock described in section 1504 (a)(4).
(v) Interests in certain partnerships
(I) In general Such term shall not include any interest in a partnership, or any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness, issued by the partnership, if 1 or more of the trades or businesses of the partnership are (or, without regard to the 5-year requirement under subsection (b)(2)(B), would be) taken into account by the distributing or controlled corporation, as the case may be, in determining whether the requirements of subsection (b) are met with respect to the distribution.
(II) Look-thru rule The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any partnership described in subclause (I).
(3) 50-percent or greater interest
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) In general
The term “50-percent or greater interest” has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).
(B) Attribution rules
The rules of section 318 shall apply for purposes of determining ownership of stock for purposes of this paragraph.
(4) Transaction
For purposes of this subsection, the term “transaction” includes a series of transactions.
(5) Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection, including regulations—
(A) to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection in cases involving—
(i) the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and
(ii) the treatment of assets unrelated to the trade or business of a corporation as investment assets if, prior to the distribution, investment assets were used to acquire such unrelated assets,
(B) which in appropriate cases exclude from the application of this subsection a distribution which does not have the character of a redemption which would be treated as a sale or exchange under section 302, and
(C) which modify the application of the attribution rules applied for purposes of this subsection.

Source

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 113; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A),Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, § 4(e)(2),Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3403; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, § 10223(b),Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–411; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1018(d)(5)(C), title II, § 2004(k)(1),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3580, 3605; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§ 11321(a), 11702(e)(2),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–460, 1388–515; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1704(t)(31),Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1889; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §§ 1012(a), (b)(1), 1014 (c), (e)(1), (2),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 914, 916, 921; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, § 6010(c)(2),July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 813; Pub. L. 109–222, title II, § 202, title V, § 507(a),May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 348, 358; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, § 410(a),Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2963; Pub. L. 110–172, § 4(b)(1), (2),Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2476.)
References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(A)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–222, which was approved May 17, 2006.
Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–172, § 4(b)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “it is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business, or substantially all of its assets consist of stock and securities of a corporation controlled by it (immediately after the distribution) which is so engaged,”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–172, § 4(b)(2), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) provided for special rule relating to active business requirement applicable in the case of any distribution made after May 17, 2006.
2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–222, § 202, added par. (3).
Subsec. (b)(3)(A), (D). Pub. L. 109–432struck out “and on or before December 31, 2010” after “this paragraph” in subpar. (A) and after “such date” in subpar. (D).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–222, § 507(a), added subsec. (g).
1998—Subsec. (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, § 6010(c)(2)(A), substituted “shall not be taken into account in applying” for “shall not be treated as described in” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (e)(3)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 105–206, § 6010(c)(2)(B), added cl. (iv) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: “The acquisition of stock in a corporation if shareholders owning directly or indirectly stock possessing—
“(I) more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, and
“(II) more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock,
in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation before such acquisition own directly or indirectly stock possessing such vote and value in such distributing or controlled corporation after such acquisition.”
1997—Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1014(e)(1), inserted “(including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351 (g)(2))” after “stock”.
Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1014(c), added subpar. (D).
Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1014(e)(2), inserted “nonqualified preferred stock and” after “subsection (including”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1012(a), added subsec. (e).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1012(b)(1), added subsec. (f).
1996—Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 104–188inserted “section” before “267(b)”.
1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11321(a), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows:
“(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation on any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization.
“(2) Distribution of appreciated property.—
“(A) In general.—If—
“(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than stock or securities in the controlled corporation, and
“(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),
then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.
“(B) Treatment of liabilities.—If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.
“(3) Coordination with sections 311 and 336 (a).—Sections 311 and 336 (a) shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1).”
Pub. L. 101–508, § 11702(e)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “Section 311 shall apply to any distribution—
“(1) to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies, and
“(2) which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization,
in the same manner as if such distribution were a distribution to which subpart A of part I applies; except that subsection (b) ofsection 311 shall not apply to any distribution of stock or securities in the controlled corporation.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508, § 11321(a), added subsec. (d).
1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647, § 2004(k)(1), added cls. (i) and (ii) and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:
“(i) was not acquired by any distributee corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations, whether through the distributing corporation or otherwise) within the period described in subparagraph (B), or
“(ii) was so acquired such distributee corporation within such period, but such control was so acquired only by reason of transactions in which gain or loss was not recognized in whole or in part, or only by reason of such transactions combined with acquisitions before the beginning of such period.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, § 1018(d)(5)(C), added subsec. (c).
1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–203, § 10223(b)(3), inserted at end “For purposes of subparagraph (D), all distributee corporations which are members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 (a) without regard to section 1504 (b)) shall be treated as 1 distributee corporation.”
Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 100–203, § 10223(b)(1), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “was not acquired directly (or through one or more corporations) by another corporation within the period described in subparagraph (B), or”.
Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 100–203, § 10223(b)(2), substituted “such distributee corporation” for “by another corporation”.
1980—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–589designated existing provisions as subpars. (A) and (B) and added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–589, § 4(e)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “exchange if any property” for “distribution if any property”, inserted provisions excluding property to which paragraph (3)(C) applies, and added subpar. (B).
1976—Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 94–455struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.
Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–172, § 4(d),Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2478, provided that:
“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 911 and 954 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222] to which they relate.
“(2) Modification of active business definition under section 355.—
“(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions made after May 17, 2006.
“(B) Transition rule.—The amendments made by subsection (b) shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a transaction which is—
“(i) made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on May 17, 2006, and at all times thereafter,
“(ii) described in a ruling request submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before such date, or
“(iii) described on or before such date in a public announcement or in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
“(C) Election out of transition rule.—Subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the distributing corporation elects not to have such subparagraph apply to distributions of such corporation. Any such election, once made, shall be irrevocable.
“(D) Special rule for certain pre-enactment distributions.—For purposes of determining the continued qualification under section 355(b)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 of distributions made on or before May 17, 2006, as a result of an acquisition, disposition, or other restructuring after such date, such distribution shall be treated as made on the date of such acquisition, disposition, or restructuring for purposes of applying subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph. The preceding sentence shall only apply with respect to the corporation that undertakes such acquisition, disposition, or other restructuring, and only if such application results in continued qualification under section 355(b)(2)(A) of such Code.
“(3) Amendment related to section 515 of the act.—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 911 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006.”
Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, § 410(b),Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2963, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 202 of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222].”
Pub. L. 109–222, title V, § 507(b),May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 361, provided that:
“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 17, 2006].
“(2) Transition rule.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a transaction which is—
“(A) made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on such date of enactment and at all times thereafter,
“(B) described in a ruling request submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before such date, or
“(C) described on or before such date in a public announcement or in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.”
Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 ofPub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(a), (b)(1) ofPub. L. 105–34applicable, with transition rule, to distributions after Apr. 16, 1997, except that amendment by section 1012 (a) applicable to such distributions only if pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) which involves an acquisition described in subsec. (e)(2)(A)(ii) of this section occurring after such date, see section 1012(d) ofPub. L. 105–34, as amended, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.
Amendment by section 1014(c), (e)(1), (2) ofPub. L. 105–34applicable, with certain exceptions, to transactions after June 8, 1997, see section 1014(f) ofPub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.
Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11321(c),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–463, provided that:
“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 361 of this title] shall apply to distributions after October 9, 1990.
“(2) Binding contract exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such distribution.
“(3) Transitional rules.—For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 355(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (a)), an acquisition shall be treated as occurring on or before October 9, 1990, if—
“(A) such acquisition is pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such acquisition,
“(B) such acquisition is pursuant to a transaction which was described in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before October 9, 1990, or
“(C) such acquisition is pursuant to a transaction—
“(i) the material terms of which were described in a written public announcement on or before October 9, 1990,
“(ii) which was the subject of a prior filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and
“(iii) which is the subject of a subsequent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission before January 1, 1991.”
Amendment by section 11702(e)(2) ofPub. L. 101–508effective as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 11702(j) ofPub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 59 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1018(d)(5)(C) ofPub. L. 100–647effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) ofPub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Amendment by section 2004(k)(1) ofPub. L. 100–647effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 2004(u) ofPub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.
Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203applicable to distributions or transfers after Dec. 15, 1987, with exceptions for certain distributee corporations and distributions covered by prior transition rule, see section 10223(d) ofPub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 304 of this title.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, and to exchanges which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, and which do not occur in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced on or before Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases, proceedings or exchanges commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c), (f) ofPub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.
Termination of Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 and Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 Amendments

Pub. L. 110–172, § 4(b)(3),Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2476, provided that: “The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied and administered as if the amendments made by section 202 of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222, amending this section] and by section 410 of division A of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 [Pub. L. 109–432, amending this section] had never been enacted.”

 

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