26 U.S. Code § 6212 - Notice of deficiency

(a) In general
If the Secretary determines that there is a deficiency in respect of any tax imposed by subtitles A or B or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 he is authorized to send notice of such deficiency to the taxpayer by certified mail or registered mail. Such notice shall include a notice to the taxpayer of the taxpayer’s right to contact a local office of the taxpayer advocate and the location and phone number of the appropriate office.
(b) Address for notice of deficiency
(1) Income and gift taxes and certain excise taxes
In the absence of notice to the Secretary under section 6903 of the existence of a fiduciary relationship, notice of a deficiency in respect of a tax imposed by subtitle A, chapter 12, chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, or chapter 44 if mailed to the taxpayer at his last known address, shall be sufficient for purposes of subtitle A, chapter 12, chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, chapter 44, and this chapter even if such taxpayer is deceased, or is under a legal disability, or, in the case of a corporation, has terminated its existence.
(2) Joint income tax return
In the case of a joint income tax return filed by husband and wife, such notice of deficiency may be a single joint notice, except that if the Secretary has been notified by either spouse that separate residences have been established, then, in lieu of the single joint notice, a duplicate original of the joint notice shall be sent by certified mail or registered mail to each spouse at his last known address.
(3) Estate tax
In the absence of notice to the Secretary under section 6903 of the existence of a fiduciary relationship, notice of a deficiency in respect of a tax imposed by chapter 11, if addressed in the name of the decedent or other person subject to liability and mailed to his last known address, shall be sufficient for purposes of chapter 11 and of this chapter.
(c) Further deficiency letters restricted
(1) General rule
If the Secretary has mailed to the taxpayer a notice of deficiency as provided in subsection (a), and the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in section 6213 (a), the Secretary shall have no right to determine any additional deficiency of income tax for the same taxable year, of gift tax for the same calendar year, of estate tax in respect of the taxable estate of the same decedent, of chapter 41 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 44 tax for the same taxable year, of section 4940 tax for the same taxable year, or of chapter 42 tax, (other than under section 4940) with respect to any act (or failure to act) to which such petition relates, except in the case of fraud, and except as provided in section 6214 (a) (relating to assertion of greater deficiencies before the Tax Court), in section 6213 (b)(1) (relating to mathematical or clerical errors), in section 6851 or 6852 (relating to termination assessments), or in section 6861 (c) (relating to the making of jeopardy assessments).
(2) Cross references
For assessment as a deficiency notwithstanding the prohibition of further deficiency letters, in the case of—
(A) Deficiency attributable to change of treatment with respect to itemized deductions, see section 63 (e)(3).
(B) Deficiency attributable to gain on involuntary conversion, see section 1033 (a)(2)(C) and (D).
(C) Deficiency attributable to activities not engaged in for profit, see section 183 (e)(4).
For provisions allowing determination of tax in title 11 cases, see section 505 (a) of title 11 of the United States Code.
(d) Authority to rescind notice of deficiency with taxpayer’s consent
The Secretary may, with the consent of the taxpayer, rescind any notice of deficiency mailed to the taxpayer. Any notice so rescinded shall not be treated as a notice of deficiency for purposes of subsection (c)(1) (relating to further deficiency letters restricted), section 6213 (a) (relating to restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court), and section 6512 (a) (relating to limitations in case of petition to Tax Court), and the taxpayer shall have no right to file a petition with the Tax Court based on such notice. Nothing in this subsection shall affect any suspension of the running of any period of limitations during any period during which the rescinded notice was outstanding.

Source

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 770; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §§ 76, 89 (b),Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1661, 1665; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, § 112(d)(1),Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, § 101(f)(2), (j)(40), (41),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 524, 530; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, § 102(d)(5),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, § 1016(a)(10),Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 94–455, title II, § 214(b), title XII, §§ 1204(c)(5), 1206(c)(3), title XIII, § 1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), (G), title XVI, § 1605(b)(5), title XIX, §§ 1901(b)(31)(C), (37)(C), 1906(b)(13)(A),Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1549, 1698, 1704, 1728, 1754, 1800, 1803, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, § 101(d)(15),May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 95–600, title IV, § 405(c)(5), title VII, § 701(t)(3)(C),Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2871, 2912; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, § 101(f)(1)(C), (4), (5),Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252, 253; Pub. L. 96–589, § 6(d)(2),Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3408; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, § 442(d)(4),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, § 104(b)(17), title XV, § 1562(a),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2106, 2761; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, § 10713(b)(2)(C),Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–470; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1941(b)(2)(B)(iii), (E), (F),Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1015(m),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, § 312(d)(12),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 105–206, title I, § 1102(b),July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 703.)
Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–206inserted at end “Such notice shall include a notice to the taxpayer of the taxpayer’s right to contact a local office of the taxpayer advocate and the location and phone number of the appropriate office.”
1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 105–34, which directed the amendment of par. (2) by striking out subpar. (C) and redesignating succeeding subpars. accordingly, was executed by redesignating subpar. (E) as (C) and striking out former subpar. (C). Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: “Deficiency attributable to gain on sale or exchange of principal residence, see section 1034 (j).” Former subpar. (D) was repealed previously.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1941(b)(2)(B)(iii), substituted “or 44” for “44, or 45”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1941(b)(2)(E), substituted “or chapter 44” for “chapter 44, or chapter 45” and “chapter 44, and this chapter” for “chapter 44, chapter 45, and this chapter”.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, § 1941(b)(2)(F), substituted “or of chapter 42 tax” for “of chapter 42 tax” and struck out “, or of chapter 45 tax for the same taxable period” after “such petition relates”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647inserted sentence at end that nothing in this subsection shall affect suspension of running of period of limitations during period during which rescinded notice was outstanding.
1987—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–203inserted reference to section 6852.
1986—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, § 104(b)(17), amended subpar. (A) generally, substituting “, see section 63 (e)(3)” for “and zero bracket amount, see section 63 (g)(5)”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, § 1562(a), added subsec. (d).
1981—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–34substituted “calendar year” for “calendar quarter”.
1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–223, § 101(f)(1)(C), inserted reference to chapter 45.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–223, § 101(f)(4), substituted “and certain excise taxes” for “taxes imposed by chapter 42” in section catchline and inserted references to chapter 45 in two places in text.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–223, § 101(f)(5), substituted “of chapter 42 tax” for “or of chapter 42 tax” and inserted “, or of chapter 45 tax for the same taxable period” after “to which such petition relates”.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–589inserted cross reference to section 505 (a) of title 11 for provisions allowing determination of tax in title 11 cases.
1978—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, § 701(t)(3)(C), substituted “same taxable year” for “same taxable years” in two places.
Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 95–600, § 405(c)(5), substituted “principal residence” for “personal residence”.
1977—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–30substituted “change of treatment with respect to itemized deductions and zero bracket amount, see section 63 (g)(5)” for “change of election with respect to the standard deduction where taxpayer and his spouse made separate returns, see section 144 (b)”.
1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §§ 1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), 1605(b)(5)(A), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, and substituted “chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44” for “chapter 42 or 43”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§ 1307(d)(2)(G)(i), 1605(b)(5)(B), (C), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”, and substituted “chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, or chapter 44” for “chapter 42, or chapter 43”, and “chapter 41, chapter 42, chapter 43, chapter 44, and this chapter” for “chapter 42, chapter 43, and this chapter”.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§ 1204(c)(5), 1206(c)(3), 1307(d)(2)(G)(ii), 1605(b)(5)(D), 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing, substituted “of chapter 41 tax for the same taxable year, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years, of chapter 44 tax for the same taxable years” for “of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years”, and “(relating to mathematical or clerical errors), in section 6851 (relating to termination assessments)” for “(relating to mathematical errors)”.
Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, § 1901(b)(31)(C), substituted “1033(a)(2)(C) and (D)” for “1033(a)(3)(C) and (D)”.
Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 94–455, § 1901(b)(37)(C), struck out subsec. (c)(2)(D) which set forth a cross reference to section 1335 of this title relating to a deficiency attributable to war loss recoveries where prior benefit rule is elected.
Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 94–455, § 214(b), added subpar. (E).
1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–406, § 1016(a)(10)(A), inserted reference to taxes imposed by chapter 43.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–406, § 1016(a)(10)(B), (C), inserted reference to chapter 43 in two places.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 93–406, § 1016(a)(10)(D), substituted “of the same decedent, of chapter 43 tax for the same taxable years,” for “of the same decedent,”.
1970—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–614substituted “calendar quarter” for “calendar year”.
1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, § 101(j)(40), inserted reference to chapter 42.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, § 101(j)(41), inserted reference to chapter 42 taxes in heading and text.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, § 101(f)(2), included section 4940 tax and chapter 42 tax (other than under section 4940), among the classes of taxes with respect to which the Secretary cannot determine additional deficiencies after the taxpayer has filed a petition for redetermination of any deficiency about which he has been notified.
1964—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 88–272substituted “with respect to the” for “to take”.
1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–866, § 89(b), inserted “certified mail or” before “registered mail”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 85–866, § 76, substituted “subtitle A or chapter 12” for “chapter 1 or 12” and “subtitle A, chapter 12,” for “such chapter”.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 85–866, § 89(b), inserted “certified mail or” before “registered mail”.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) ofPub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) ofPub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) ofPub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(b)(17) ofPub. L. 99–514applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) ofPub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, § 1562(b),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2762, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to notices of deficiency issued on or after January 1, 1986.”
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 442(e) ofPub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) ofPub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223applicable to periods after Feb. 29, 1980, see section 101(i) ofPub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 6161 of this title.
Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 405(c)(5) ofPub. L. 95–600applicable to sales and exchanges of residences after July 26, 1978, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 405(d) ofPub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 1038 of this title.
Amendment by section 701(t)(3)(C) ofPub. L. 95–600effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 701(t)(5) ofPub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 859 of this title.
Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) ofPub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 214(b) ofPub. L. 94–455applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, except that such amendments shall not apply to any taxable year ending before Oct. 4, 1976 with respect to which the period for assessing a deficiency has expired before Oct. 4, 1976, see section 214(c) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 183 of this title.
Amendment by section 1204(c)(5) ofPub. L. 94–455applicable with respect to action taken under section 6851, 6861, or 6862 of this title where the notice and demand takes place after Feb. 28, 1977, see section 1204(d) ofPub. L. 94–455, as amended, set out as a note under section 6851 of this title.
Amendment by section 1206(c)(3) ofPub. L. 94–455applicable to returns filed after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1206(d) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 6213 of this title.
Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(F)(ii), (G) ofPub. L. 94–455effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.
For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(5) ofPub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.
Amendment by section 1901(b)(31)(C), (37)(C) ofPub. L. 94–455applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.
Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) ofPub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 ofPub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.
Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) ofPub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.
Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) ofPub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.
Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 ofPub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 76 ofPub. L. 85–866effective Aug. 17, 1954, see section 1(c)(2) ofPub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.
Amendment by section 89(b) ofPub. L. 85–866applicable only if mailing occurs after Sept. 2, 1958, see section 89(d) ofPub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 7502 of this title.
Notice of Deficiency To Specify Deadlines for Filing Tax Court Petition

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3463(a),July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 767, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary’s delegate shall include on each notice of deficiency under section 6212 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 the date determined by such Secretary (or delegate) as the last day on which the taxpayer may file a petition with the Tax Court.”
[Section 3463(a) ofPub. L. 105–206, set out above, applicable to notices mailed after Dec. 31, 1998, see section 3463(c) ofPub. L. 105–206, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 6213 of this title.]
Explanations of Appeals and Collection Process

Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3504,July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 771, provided that: “The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary’s delegate shall, as soon as practicable, but not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998], include with any first letter of proposed deficiency which allows the taxpayer an opportunity for administrative review in the Internal Revenue Service Office of Appeals an explanation of the entire process from examination through collection with respect to such proposed deficiency, including the assistance available to the taxpayer from the National Taxpayer Advocate at various points in the process.”

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.