(1) Procedures instituted primarily for delay, etc.
Whenever it appears to the Tax Court that—
(A)proceedings before it have been instituted or maintained by the taxpayer primarily for delay,
(B)the taxpayer’s position in such proceeding is frivolous or groundless, or
(C)the taxpayer unreasonably failed to pursue available administrative remedies,
the Tax Court, in its decision, may require the taxpayer to pay to the United States a penalty not in excess of $25,000.
(2) Counsel’s liability for excessive costs
Whenever it appears to the Tax Court that any attorney or other person admitted to practice before the Tax Court has multiplied the proceedings in any case unreasonably and vexatiously, the Tax Court may require—
(A)that such attorney or other person pay personally the excess costs, expenses, and attorneys’ fees reasonably incurred because of such conduct, or
(B)if such attorney is appearing on behalf of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, that the United States pay such excess costs, expenses, and attorneys’ fees in the same manner as such an award by a district court.
(b) Proceedings in other courts
(1) Claims under section
Whenever it appears to the court that the taxpayer’s position in the proceedings before the court instituted or maintained by such taxpayer under section
7433 is frivolous or groundless, the court may require the taxpayer to pay to the United States a penalty not in excess of $10,000.
(2) Collection of sanctions and costs
In any civil proceeding before any court (other than the Tax Court) which is brought by or against the United States in connection with the determination, collection, or refund of any tax, interest, or penalty under this title, any monetary sanctions, penalties, or costs awarded by the court to the United States may be assessed by the Secretary and, upon notice and demand, may be collected in the same manner as a tax.
(3) Sanctions and costs awarded by a court of appeals
In connection with any appeal from a proceeding in the Tax Court or a civil proceeding described in paragraph (2), an order of a United States Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court awarding monetary sanctions, penalties or court costs to the United States may be registered in a district court upon filing a certified copy of such order and shall be enforceable as other district court judgments. Any such sanctions, penalties, or costs may be assessed by the Secretary and, upon notice and demand, may be collected in the same manner as a tax.
1989—Pub. L. 101–239substituted “Sanctions and costs awarded by courts” for “Damages assessable for instituting proceedings before the Court primarily for delay, etc.” in section catchline and amended text generally, making changes in substance and structure of subsecs. (a) and (b).
1988—Pub. L. 100–647struck out “Tax” after “before the” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).
1986—Pub. L. 99–514substituted “, that the taxpayer’s position in such proceeding is frivolous or groundless, or that the taxpayer unreasonably failed to pursue available administrative remedies” for “or that the taxpayer’s position in such proceedings is frivolous or groundless”.
1982—Pub. L. 97–248, § 292(d)(2)(A), substituted “primarily for delay, etc.” for “merely for delay” after “Tax Court” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–248, § 292(b), substituted “or maintained by the taxpayer primarily for delay or that the taxpayer’s position in such proceedings is frivolous or groundless, damages in an amount not in excess of $5,000” for “by the taxpayer merely for delay, damages in an amount not in excess of $500” in first sentence.
Section 7731(d) ofPub. L. 101–239provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section
7482 of this title] shall apply to positions taken after December 31, 1989, in proceedings which are pending on, or commenced after such date.”
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment
Section 6241(d) ofPub. L. 100–647provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section
7433 of this title and amending this section] shall apply to actions by officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment
Section 1552(b) ofPub. L. 99–514provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to proceedings commenced after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].”
Effective Date of 1982 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248applicable to any action or proceeding in the Tax Court commenced after Dec. 31, 1982, or pending in the Tax Court on the day 120 days after July 18, 1984, see section 292(e)(2) ofPub. L. 97–248, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section
7430 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.
Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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