26 U.S. Code § 7443 - Membership

(a) Number
The Tax Court shall be composed of 19 members.
(b) Appointment
Judges of the Tax Court shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, solely on the grounds of fitness to perform the duties of the office.
(c) Salary
(1) Each judge shall receive salary at the same rate and in the same installments as judges of the district courts of the United States.
(2) For rate of salary and frequency of installment see section 135, title 28, United States Code, and section 5505, title 5, United States Code.
(d) Expenses for travel and subsistence
Judges of the Tax Court shall receive necessary traveling expenses, and expenses actually incurred for subsistence while traveling on duty and away from their designated stations, subject to the same limitations in amount as are now or may hereafter be applicable to the United States Court of International Trade.
(e) Term of office
The term of office of any judge of the Tax Court shall expire 15 years after he takes office.
(f) Removal from office
Judges of the Tax Court may be removed by the President, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office, but for no other cause.
(g) Disbarment of removed judges
A judge of the Tax Court removed from office in accordance with subsection (f) shall not be permitted at any time to practice before the Tax Court.

Source

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 879; Mar. 2, 1955, ch. 9, § 1(h),69 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 88–426, title IV, § 403(i),Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 434; Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, §§ 952, 953,Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 96–417, title VI, § 601(10),Oct. 10, 1980, 94 Stat. 1744; Pub. L. 96–439, § 1(a), (b),Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1878.)
Amendments

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–439, § 1(a), increased number of judges from 16 to 19.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–439, § 1(b), struck out age limitation that no one could be appointed a member of the Tax Court unless appointed before attaining age 65.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–417substituted “Court of International Trade” for “Customs Court”.
1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172, § 952(a), provided that an individual may not be appointed a judge of the Tax Court after reaching age 65.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172, § 953, substituted provisions fixing salary of Tax Court judges at the same rate and same installments as District Court judges, for provisions that each judge of the Tax Court receive a salary of $30,000 per annum, to be paid in monthly installments.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–172, § 952(b), substituted provisions that a term in office of any Tax Court judge would expire 15 years after he takes office, for provisions that a term in office of any Tax Court judge would expire 12 years after the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, and any judge appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed would be appointed only for the unexpired term of his predecessor.
1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–426increased salary of judges from $22,500 to $30,000.
1955—Subsec. (c). Act Mar. 2, 1955, increased salary of judges from $15,000 to $22,500.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Pub. L. 96–439, § 1(c),Oct. 13, 1980, 94 Stat. 1878, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on February 1, 1981.”
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–417effective, except as otherwise provided, Nov. 1, 1980, and applicable with respect to civil actions pending on or commenced on or after such date, see section 701(a) ofPub. L. 96–417, as amended, set out as a note under section 251 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–172, title IX, § 962(b), (c),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 736, provided that:
“(b) The amendment made by section 952 (a) [amending this section] shall apply to judges appointed after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 30, 1969].
“(c) The amendment made by section 952 (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 30, 1969], except that—
“(1) the term of office being served by a judge of the Tax Court on that date shall expire on the date it would have expired under the law in effect on the date preceding the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 30, 1969]; and
“(2) a judge of the Tax Court on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 30, 1969] may be reappointed in the same manner as a judge of the Tax Court hereafter appointed.”
Amendment by section 953 ofPub. L. 91–172to take effect on Dec. 30, 1969, see section 962(a) ofPub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 7441 of this title.
Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–426effective on first day of first pay period which begins on or after July 1, 1964, except to the extent provided in section 501(c) ofPub. L. 88–426, see section 501 ofPub. L. 88–426, title V, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 435.
Effective Date of 1955 Amendment

Amendment by act Mar. 2, 1955, effective Mar. 1, 1955, see section 5 of act Mar. 2, 1955, set out as a note under section 31 of Title 2, The Congress.
Salary Increases

1987—Salaries of judges increased to $89,500 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2, The Congress.
1977—Salaries of judges increased to $54,500 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.
1969—Salaries of judges increased to $40,000 per annum, on recommendation of the President of the United States, see note set out under section 358 of Title 2.
Certification by Judge of Travel Expenses

Provisions authorizing the travel expenses of the judges of the United States Tax Court to be paid upon the written certificate of the judge were contained in the Transportation, Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006, Pub. L. 109–115, div. A, title VI, Nov. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2490, and were repeated in provisions of subsequent appropriations acts which are not set out in the Code. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:
Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title IV, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3264.
Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title IV, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 340.
Pub. L. 108–7, div. J, title IV, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 460.
Pub. L. 107–67, title IV, Nov. 12, 2001, 115 Stat. 543.
Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(3) [title IV], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–150.
Pub. L. 106–58, title IV, Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 463.
Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(h) [title IV], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681–510.
Pub. L. 105–61, title IV, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1304.
Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(f) [title IV], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–344.
Pub. L. 104–52, title IV, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 491.
Pub. L. 103–329, title IV, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2408.
Pub. L. 103–123, title IV, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1251.
Pub. L. 102–393, title IV, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1757.
Pub. L. 102–141, title IV, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 862.
Pub. L. 101–509, title IV, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1422.
Pub. L. 101–136, title IV, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 811.
Pub. L. 100–440, title IV, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1746.
Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(m) [title IV], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329–414.
Pub. L. 99–500, § 101(m) [title IV], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783–323, and Pub. L. 99–591, § 101(m) [title IV], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341–323.
Pub. L. 99–190, title I, § 101(h) [H.R. 3036, title IV], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1291.
Pub. L. 98–473, title I, § 101(j) [H.R. 5798, title IV], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1963.
Pub. L. 98–151, § 101(f) [H.R. 4139, title IV], Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 973.
Pub. L. 97–377, title I, § 101(a) [incorporating H.R. 4121, title IV, for FY 1982], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1830.
Pub. L. 97–92, § 101(a) [H.R. 4121, title IV], Dec. 15, 1981, 95 Stat. 1183.
Pub. L. 96–536, § 101(a) [incorporating Pub. L. 96–74, title IV], Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3166.
Pub. L. 96–74, title IV, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 572.
Pub. L. 95–429, title IV, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1013.
Pub. L. 95–81, title IV, July 31, 1977, 91 Stat. 352.
Pub. L. 94–363, title IV, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 975.
Pub. L. 94–91, title IV, Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 456.
Pub. L. 93–381, title IV, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 629.
Pub. L. 93–143, title IV, Oct. 30, 1973, 87 Stat. 522.
Pub. L. 92–351, title IV, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 485.
Pub. L. 92–49, title IV, July 9, 1971, 85 Stat. 120.
Pub. L. 91–422, title IV, Sept. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 878.
Pub. L. 91–74, title IV, Sept. 29, 1969, 83 Stat. 123.
Pub. L. 90–350, title IV, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 196.
Pub. L. 90–47, title IV, July 7, 1967, 81 Stat. 118.
Pub. L. 89–474, title IV, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 228.
Pub. L. 89–57, title IV, June 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 203.
Pub. L. 88–392, title IV, Aug. 1, 1964, 78 Stat. 375.
Pub. L. 88–39, title IV, June 13, 1963, 77 Stat. 65.
Pub. L. 87–575, title V, Aug. 6, 1962, 76 Stat. 317.
Pub. L. 87–159, title III, Aug. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 398.
Pub. L. 86–561, title III, June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 288.
Pub. L. 86–39, title III, June 11, 1959, 73 Stat. 70.
Pub. L. 85–354, title III, Mar. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 66.
Pub. L. 85–37, title III, May 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 41.
Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 161, title III, 70 Stat. 98.
June 1, 1955, ch. 113, title III, 69 Stat. 78.
Executive Order No. 12064

Ex. Ord. No. 12064, June 5, 1978, 43 F.R. 24661, which established the United States Tax Court Nominating Commission and provided for its membership, functions, etc., was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12305, May 5, 1981, 46 F.R. 25421, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

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