26 U.S. Code § 83 - Property transferred in connection with performance of services

(a) General rule
If, in connection with the performance of services, property is transferred to any person other than the person for whom such services are performed, the excess of—
(1) the fair market value of such property (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse) at the first time the rights of the person having the beneficial interest in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier, over
(2) the amount (if any) paid for such property, shall be included in the gross income of the person who performed such services in the first taxable year in which the rights of the person having the beneficial interest in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever is applicable. The preceding sentence shall not apply if such person sells or otherwise disposes of such property in an arm’s length transaction before his rights in such property become transferable or not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture.
(b) Election to include in gross income in year of transfer
(1) In general
Any person who performs services in connection with which property is transferred to any person may elect to include in his gross income for the taxable year in which such property is transferred, the excess of—
(A) the fair market value of such property at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse), over
(B) the amount (if any) paid for such property.
If such election is made, subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to the transfer of such property, and if such property is subsequently forfeited, no deduction shall be allowed in respect of such forfeiture.
(2) Election
An election under paragraph (1) with respect to any transfer of property shall be made in such manner as the Secretary prescribes and shall be made not later than 30 days after the date of such transfer. Such election may not be revoked except with the consent of the Secretary.
(c) Special rules
For purposes of this section—
(1) Substantial risk of forfeiture
The rights of a person in property are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture if such person’s rights to full enjoyment of such property are conditioned upon the future performance of substantial services by any individual.
(2) Transferability of property
The rights of a person in property are transferable only if the rights in such property of any transferee are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture.
(3) Sales which may give rise to suit under section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
So long as the sale of property at a profit could subject a person to suit under section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, such person’s rights in such property are—
(A) subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, and
(B) not transferable.
(4) For purposes of determining an individual’s basis in property transferred in connection with the performance of services, rules similar to the rules of section 72 (w) shall apply.
(d) Certain restrictions which will never lapse
(1) Valuation
In the case of property subject to a restriction which by its terms will never lapse, and which allows the transferee to sell such property only at a price determined under a formula, the price so determined shall be deemed to be the fair market value of the property unless established to the contrary by the Secretary, and the burden of proof shall be on the Secretary with respect to such value.
(2) Cancellation
If, in the case of property subject to a restriction which by its terms will never lapse, the restriction is canceled, then, unless the taxpayer establishes—
(A) that such cancellation was not compensatory, and
(B) that the person, if any, who would be allowed a deduction if the cancellation were treated as compensatory, will treat the transaction as not compensatory, as evidenced in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations,
the excess of the fair market value of the property (computed without regard to the restrictions) at the time of cancellation over the sum of—
(C) the fair market value of such property (computed by taking the restriction into account) immediately before the cancellation, and
(D) the amount, if any, paid for the cancellation,
shall be treated as compensation for the taxable year in which such cancellation occurs.
(e) Applicability of section
This section shall not apply to—
(1) a transaction to which section 421 applies,
(2) a transfer to or from a trust described in section 401 (a) or a transfer under an annuity plan which meets the requirements of section 404 (a)(2),
(3) the transfer of an option without a readily ascertainable fair market value,
(4) the transfer of property pursuant to the exercise of an option with a readily ascertainable fair market value at the date of grant, or
(5) group-term life insurance to which section 79 applies.
(f) Holding period
In determining the period for which the taxpayer has held property to which subsection (a) applies, there shall be included only the period beginning at the first time his rights in such property are transferable or are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, whichever occurs earlier.
(g) Certain exchanges
If property to which subsection (a) applies is exchanged for property subject to restrictions and conditions substantially similar to those to which the property given in such exchange was subject, and if section 354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of section 1031 as relates to section 1036) applied to such exchange, or if such exchange was pursuant to the exercise of a conversion privilege—
(1) such exchange shall be disregarded for purposes of subsection (a), and
(2) the property received shall be treated as property to which subsection (a) applies.
(h) Deduction by employer
In the case of a transfer of property to which this section applies or a cancellation of a restriction described in subsection (d), there shall be allowed as a deduction under section 162, to the person for whom were performed the services in connection with which such property was transferred, an amount equal to the amount included under subsection (a), (b), or (d)(2) in the gross income of the person who performed such services. Such deduction shall be allowed for the taxable year of such person in which or with which ends the taxable year in which such amount is included in the gross income of the person who performed such services.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 91–172, title III, § 321(a),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 588; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§ 1901(a)(15), 1906(b)(13)(A),Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, § 252(a),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, § 102(k)(1),Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, § 223(c),July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1827(e),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2851; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11801(a)(5),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, § 906(b),Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1654.)
References in Text

Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is classified to section 78p (b) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.
Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–357added par. (4).
1990—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–508struck out subsec. (i) “Transition rules” which read as follows: “This section shall apply to property transferred after June 30, 1969, except that this section shall not apply to property transferred—
“(1) pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before April 22, 1969,
“(2) upon the exercise of an option granted before April 22, 1969,
“(3) before May 1, 1970, pursuant to a written plan adopted and approved before July 1, 1969,
“(4) before January 1, 1973, upon the exercise of an option granted pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before April 22, 1969, between a corporation and the transferor requiring the transferor to grant options to employees of such corporation (or a subsidiary of such corporation) to purchase a determinable number of shares of stock of such corporation, but only if the transferee was an employee of such corporation (or a subsidiary of such corporation) on or before April 22, 1969, or
“(5) in exchange for (or pursuant to the exercise of a conversion privilege contained in) property transferred before July 1, 1969, or for property to which this section does not apply (by reason of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), or (4)), if section 354, 355, 356, or 1036 (or so much of section 1031 as relates to section 1036) applies, or if gain or loss is not otherwise required to be recognized upon the exercise of such conversion privilege, and if the property received in such exchange is subject to restrictions and conditions substantially similar to those to which the property given in such exchange was subject.”
1986—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 99–514struck out “the cost of” before “group-life insurance”.
1984—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98–369added par. (5).
1983—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–448substituted “Securities Exchange Act of 1934” for “Securities and Exchange Act of 1934” in heading and text.
1981—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–34added par. (3).
1976—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, § 1901(a)(15), struck out “(or, if later, 30 days after the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1969)” after “after the date of such transfer”, and § 1906(b)(13)(A), “or his delegate” after “Secretary” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (d)(1), (2)(B). Pub. L. 94–455, § 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.
Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357applicable to distributions on or after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 906(c) ofPub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 ofPub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 223(d)(1) ofPub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 79 of this title.
Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 ofPub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title II, § 252(c),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 260, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title I, § 102(k)(2), 96 Stat. 2374, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] and the provisions of subsection (b) [set out below] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 1981.”
Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(15) ofPub. L. 94–455applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) ofPub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.
Effective Date

Pub. L. 91–172, title III, § 321(d),Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 591, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (c) [amending sections 402, 403, and 404 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after June 30, 1969. The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section] shall apply with respect to contributions made and premiums paid after August 1, 1969.”
Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) ofPub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.
Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§ 1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§ 1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 ofPub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.
Application of Amendments Made by Section 252 of Pub. L. 97–34

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1879(p),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2911, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1018(q)(3),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3585, provided that:
“(1) Notwithstanding subsection (c) ofsection 252 of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 [section 252(c) ofPub. L. 97–34, set out above], the amendment made by subsection (a) of such section 252 [amending this section] (and the provisions of subsection (b) of such section 252 [set out below]) shall apply to any transfer of stock to any person if—
“(A) such transfer occurred in November or December of 1973 and was pursuant to the exercise of an option granted in November or December of 1971,
“(B) in December 1973 the corporation granting the option was acquired by another corporation in a transaction qualifying as a reorganization under section 368 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986],
“(C) the fair market value (as of July 1, 1974) of the stock received by such person in the reorganization in exchange for the stock transferred to him pursuant to the exercise of such option was less than 50 percent of the fair market value of the stock so received (as of December 4, 1973),
“(D) in 1975 or 1976 such person sold substantially all of the stock received in such reorganization, and
“(E) such person makes an election under this section at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe.
“(2) Limitation on amount of benefit.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to transfers with respect to any employee to the extent that the application of paragraph (1) with respect to such employee would (but for this paragraph) result in a reduction in liability for income tax with respect to such employee for all taxable years in excess of $100,000 (determined without regard to any interest).
“(3) Statute of limitations.—
“(A) Overpayments.—If refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at any time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the operation of any law or rule of law, refund or credit of such overpayment (to the extent attributable to the application of paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the close of such 6-month period.
“(B) Deficiencies.—If the assessment of any deficiency of tax resulting from the application of paragraph (1) is prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] (or at any time within 6 months after such date of enactment) by the operation of any law or rule of law, assessment of such deficiency (to the extent attributable to the application of paragraph (1)) may, nevertheless, be made within such 6-month period.”
Time for Making Certain Section 83(b) Elections

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, § 556,July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 898, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, title XVIII, § 1855(b),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2882, provided that: “In the case of any transfer of property in connection with the performance of services on or before November 18, 1982, the election permitted by section 83(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] may be made, notwithstanding paragraph (2) of such section 83 (b), with the income tax return for any taxable year ending after July 18, 1984, and beginning before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Oct. 22, 1986 if—
“(1) the amount paid for such property was not less than its fair market value at the time of transfer (determined without regard to any restriction other than a restriction which by its terms will never lapse), and
“(2) the election is consented to by the person transferring such property.
The election shall contain that information required by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for elections permitted by such section 83 (b). The period for assessing any tax attributable to a transfer of property which is the subject of an election made pursuant to this section shall not expire before the date which is 3 years after the date such election was made.”
Property Subject to Transfer Restrictions To Comply With “Pooling-of-Interests Accounting” Rules

Pub. L. 97–34, title II, § 252(b),Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 260, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2,Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided, effective with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1981, that: “For purposes of section 83 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954], property is subject to substantial risk of forfeiture and is not transferable so long as such property is subject to a restriction on transfer to comply with the “Pooling-of-Interests Accounting” rules set forth in Accounting Series Release Numbered 130 ((10/5/72) 37 FR 20937; 17 CFR 211.130) and Accounting Series Release Numbered 135 ((1/18/73) 38 FR 1734; 17 CFR 211.135).”

 

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