(a)A civil action or criminal prosecution that is commenced in a State court and that is against or directed to any of the following may be removed by them to the district court of the United States for the district and division embracing the place wherein it is pending:
(1)The United States or any agency thereof or any officer (or any person acting under that officer) of the United States or of any agency thereof, in an official or individual capacity, for or relating to any act under color of such office or on account of any right, title or authority claimed under any Act of Congress for the apprehension or punishment of criminals or the collection of the revenue.
(2)A property holder whose title is derived from any such officer, where such action or prosecution affects the validity of any law of the United States.
(3)Any officer of the courts of the United States, for or relating to any act under color of office or in the performance of his duties;
(4)Any officer of either House of Congress, for or relating to any act in the discharge of his official duty under an order of such House.
(b)A personal action commenced in any State court by an alien against any citizen of a State who is, or at the time the alleged action accrued was, a civil officer of the United States and is a nonresident of such State, wherein jurisdiction is obtained by the State court by personal service of process, may be removed by the defendant to the district court of the United States for the district and division in which the defendant was served with process.
(c)Solely for purposes of determining the propriety of removal under subsection (a), a law enforcement officer, who is the defendant in a criminal prosecution, shall be deemed to have been acting under the color of his office if the officer—
(1)protected an individual in the presence of the officer from a crime of violence;
(2)provided immediate assistance to an individual who suffered, or who was threatened with, bodily harm; or
(3)prevented the escape of any individual who the officer reasonably believed to have committed, or was about to commit, in the presence of the officer, a crime of violence that resulted in, or was likely to result in, death or serious bodily injury.
(d)In this section, the following definitions apply:
(1)The terms “civil action” and “criminal prosecution” include any proceeding (whether or not ancillary to another proceeding) to the extent that in such proceeding a judicial order, including a subpoena for testimony or documents, is sought or issued. If removal is sought for a proceeding described in the previous sentence, and there is no other basis for removal, only that proceeding may be removed to the district court.
(2)The term “crime of violence” has the meaning given that term in section
16 of title
(3)The term “law enforcement officer” means any employee described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section
8401(17) of title
5 and any special agent in the Diplomatic Security Service of the Department of State.
(4)The term “serious bodily injury” has the meaning given that term in section
1365 of title
(5)The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, United States territories and insular possessions, and Indian country (as defined in section
1151 of title
(6)The term “State court” includes the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, a court of a United States territory or insular possession, and a tribal court.
Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 76 and
77 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§ 33,
34,36 Stat. 1097, 1098; Aug. 23, 1916, ch. 399, 39 Stat. 532).
Section consolidates sections
77 of title
28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.
The revised subsection (a)(1) is extended to apply to all officers and employees of the United States or any agency thereof. Section
76 of title
28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was limited to revenue officers engaged in the enforcement of the criminal or revenue laws.
The procedural provisions of section
76 of title
28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections
1447 of this title. (See reviser’s notes under those sections.)
Changes were made in phraseology.
2013—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 112–239added subsecs. (c) and (d) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “As used in subsection (a), the terms ‘civil action’ and ‘criminal prosecution’ include any proceeding (whether or not ancillary to another proceeding) to the extent that in such proceeding a judicial order, including a subpoena for testimony or documents, is sought or issued. If removal is sought for a proceeding described in the previous sentence, and there is no other basis for removal, only that proceeding may be removed to the district court.”
2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–51, § 2(a)(1), inserted “that is” after “or criminal prosecution”, “and that is” after “in a State court”, and “or directed to” after “against” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–51, § 2(b)(1), substituted “capacity, for or relating to” for “capacity for” and struck out “sued” after “thereof,”.
Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 112–51, § 2(b)(2), inserted “or relating to” after “for”.
1996—Pub. L. 104–317, § 206(a)(1), inserted “or agencies” after “officers” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–317, § 206(a)(2), struck out “persons” after “following” in introductory provisions and substituted “The United States or any agency thereof or any officer (or any person acting under that officer) of the United States or of any agency thereof, sued in an official or individual capacity for any act under color of such office” for “Any officer of the United States or any agency thereof, or person acting under him, for any act under color of such office” in par. (1).
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.