28 U.S. Code § 2679 - Exclusiveness of remedy

(a) The authority of any federal agency to sue and be sued in its own name shall not be construed to authorize suits against such federal agency on claims which are cognizable under section 1346 (b) of this title, and the remedies provided by this title in such cases shall be exclusive.
(b)
(1) The remedy against the United States provided by sections 1346 (b) and 2672 of this title for injury or loss of property, or personal injury or death arising or resulting from the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any employee of the Government while acting within the scope of his office or employment is exclusive of any other civil action or proceeding for money damages by reason of the same subject matter against the employee whose act or omission gave rise to the claim or against the estate of such employee. Any other civil action or proceeding for money damages arising out of or relating to the same subject matter against the employee or the employee’s estate is precluded without regard to when the act or omission occurred.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not extend or apply to a civil action against an employee of the Government—
(A) which is brought for a violation of the Constitution of the United States, or
(B) which is brought for a violation of a statute of the United States under which such action against an individual is otherwise authorized.
(c) The Attorney General shall defend any civil action or proceeding brought in any court against any employee of the Government or his estate for any such damage or injury. The employee against whom such civil action or proceeding is brought shall deliver within such time after date of service or knowledge of service as determined by the Attorney General, all process served upon him or an attested true copy thereof to his immediate superior or to whomever was designated by the head of his department to receive such papers and such person shall promptly furnish copies of the pleadings and process therein to the United States attorney for the district embracing the place wherein the proceeding is brought, to the Attorney General, and to the head of his employing Federal agency.
(d)
(1) Upon certification by the Attorney General that the defendant employee was acting within the scope of his office or employment at the time of the incident out of which the claim arose, any civil action or proceeding commenced upon such claim in a United States district court shall be deemed an action against the United States under the provisions of this title and all references thereto, and the United States shall be substituted as the party defendant.
(2) Upon certification by the Attorney General that the defendant employee was acting within the scope of his office or employment at the time of the incident out of which the claim arose, any civil action or proceeding commenced upon such claim in a State court shall be removed without bond at any time before trial by the Attorney General to the district court of the United States for the district and division embracing the place in which the action or proceeding is pending. Such action or proceeding shall be deemed to be an action or proceeding brought against the United States under the provisions of this title and all references thereto, and the United States shall be substituted as the party defendant. This certification of the Attorney General shall conclusively establish scope of office or employment for purposes of removal.
(3) In the event that the Attorney General has refused to certify scope of office or employment under this section, the employee may at any time before trial petition the court to find and certify that the employee was acting within the scope of his office or employment. Upon such certification by the court, such action or proceeding shall be deemed to be an action or proceeding brought against the United States under the provisions of this title and all references thereto, and the United States shall be substituted as the party defendant. A copy of the petition shall be served upon the United States in accordance with the provisions of Rule 4(d)(4)  [1] of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In the event the petition is filed in a civil action or proceeding pending in a State court, the action or proceeding may be removed without bond by the Attorney General to the district court of the United States for the district and division embracing the place in which it is pending. If, in considering the petition, the district court determines that the employee was not acting within the scope of his office or employment, the action or proceeding shall be remanded to the State court.
(4) Upon certification, any action or proceeding subject to paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall proceed in the same manner as any action against the United States filed pursuant to section 1346 (b) of this title and shall be subject to the limitations and exceptions applicable to those actions.
(5) Whenever an action or proceeding in which the United States is substituted as the party defendant under this subsection is dismissed for failure first to present a claim pursuant to section 2675 (a) of this title, such a claim shall be deemed to be timely presented under section 2401 (b) of this title if—
(A) the claim would have been timely had it been filed on the date the underlying civil action was commenced, and
(B) the claim is presented to the appropriate Federal agency within 60 days after dismissal of the civil action.
(e) The Attorney General may compromise or settle any claim asserted in such civil action or proceeding in the manner provided in section 2677, and with the same effect.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be a reference to Rule 4(i).

Source

(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 984; Pub. L. 87–258, § 1,Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 539; Pub. L. 89–506, § 5(a),July 18, 1966, 80 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 100–694, §§ 5, 6,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4564.)
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 945 (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, § 423,60 Stat. 846).
Changes were made in phraseology.
Senate Revision Amendment

The catchline and text of this section were changed and the section was renumbered “2678” by Senate amendment. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.
References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), are set out in the Appendix to this title.
Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–694, § 5, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “The remedy against the United States provided by sections 1346 (b) and 2672 of this title for injury or loss of property or personal injury or death, resulting from the operation by any employee of the Government of any motor vehicle while acting within the scope of his office or employment, shall hereafter be exclusive of any other civil action or proceeding by reason of the same subject matter against the employee or his estate whose act or omission gave rise to the claim.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–694, § 6, amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Upon a certification by the Attorney General that the defendant employee was acting within the scope of his employment at the time of the incident out of which the suit arose, any such civil action or proceeding commenced in a State court shall be removed without bond at any time before trial by the Attorney General to the district court of the United States for the district and division embracing the place wherein it is pending and the proceedings deemed a tort action brought against the United States under the provisions of this title and all references thereto. Should a United States district court determine on a hearing on a motion to remand held before a trial on the merits that the case so removed is one in which a remedy by suit within the meaning of subsection (b) of this section is not available against the United States, the case shall be remanded to the State court.”
1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–506inserted reference to section 2672 of this title and substituted “remedy” for “remedy by suit”.
1961—Pub. L. 87–258designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (e).
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–694, § 8,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4565, provided that:
“(a) General Rule.—This Act and the amendments made by this Act [enacting section 831c–2 of Title 16, Conservation, amending this section and sections 2671 and 2674 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 2671 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988].
“(b) Applicability to Proceedings.—The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 2671 and 2674 of this title] shall apply to all claims, civil actions, and proceedings pending on, or filed on or after, the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(c) Pending State Proceedings.—With respect to any civil action or proceeding pending in a State court to which the amendments made by this Act apply, and as to which the period for removal under section 2679 (d) of title 28, United States Code (as amended by section 6 of this Act), has expired, the Attorney General shall have 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act during which to seek removal under such section 2679 (d).
“(d) Claims Accruing Before Enactment.—With respect to any civil action or proceeding to which the amendments made by this Act apply in which the claim accrued before the date of the enactment of this Act, the period during which the claim shall be deemed to be timely presented under section 2679 (d)(5) of title 28, United States Code (as amended by section 6 of this Act) shall be that period within which the claim could have been timely filed under applicable State law, but in no event shall such period exceed two years from the date of the enactment of this Act.”
Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–506applicable to claims accruing six months or more after July 18, 1966, see section 10 ofPub. L. 89–506, set out as a note under section 2672 of this title.
Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–258, § 2,Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 539, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [amending this section] shall be deemed to be in effect six months after the enactment hereof [Sept. 21, 1961] but any rights or liabilities then existing shall not be affected.”

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28 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


10 CFR - Energy

10 CFR Part 14 - ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT

14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 1261 - PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL)

22 CFR - Foreign Relations

22 CFR Part 511 - FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE

28 CFR - Judicial Administration

28 CFR Part 15 - CERTIFICATION AND DECERTIFICATION IN CONNECTION WITH CERTAIN SUITS BASED UPON ACTS OR OMISSIONS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES AND OTHER PERSONS

28 CFR Part 543 - LEGAL MATTERS

32 CFR - National Defense

32 CFR Part 536 - CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES

32 CFR Part 842 - ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS

38 CFR - Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief

38 CFR Part 14 - LEGAL SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS

39 CFR - Postal Service

39 CFR Part 912 - PROCEDURES TO ADJUDICATE CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE

43 CFR - Public Lands: Interior

43 CFR Part 22 - ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EMPLOYEES

 

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