28 U.S. Code § 3203 - Execution

(a) Property Subject to Execution.— All property in which the judgment debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest shall be subject to levy pursuant to a writ of execution. The debtor’s earnings shall not be subject to execution while in the possession, custody, or control of the debtor’s employer. Co-owned property shall be subject to execution to the extent such property is subject to execution under the law of the State in which it is located.
(b) Creation of Execution Lien.— A lien shall be created in favor of the United States on all property levied on under a writ of execution and shall date from the time of the levy. Such lien shall have priority over all subsequent liens and shall be for the aggregate amount of the judgment, costs, and interest. The execution lien on any real property as to which the United States has a judgment lien shall relate back to the judgment lien date.
(c) Writ of Execution.—
(1) Issuance.— On written application of counsel for the United States, the court may issue a writ of execution. Multiple writs may issue simultaneously, and successive writs may issue before the return date of a writ previously issued.
(2) Form of writ.—
(A) General contents.— A writ of execution shall specify the date that the judgment is entered, the court in which it is entered, the amount of the judgment if for money, the amount of the costs, the amount of interest due, the sum due as of the date the writ is issued, the rate of postjudgment interest, the name of the judgment debtor, and the judgment debtor’s last known address.
(B) Additional contents.—
(i) Except as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii), the writ shall direct the United States marshal to satisfy the judgment by levying on and selling property in which the judgment debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest, but not to exceed property reasonably equivalent in value to the aggregate amount of the judgment, costs, and interest.
(ii) A writ of execution issued on a judgment for the delivery to the United States of the possession of personal property, or for the delivery of the possession of real property, shall particularly describe the property, and shall require the marshal to deliver the possession of the property to the United States.
(iii) A writ of execution on a judgment for the recovery of personal property or its value shall direct the marshal, in case a delivery of the specific property cannot be had, to levy and collect such value out of any property in which the judgment debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest.
(d) Levy of Execution.—
(1) In general.— Levy on property pursuant to a writ of execution issued under this section shall be made in the same manner as levy on property is made pursuant to a writ of attachment issued under section 3102 (d).
(2) Death of judgment debtor.— The death of the judgment debtor after a writ of execution is issued stays the execution proceedings, but any lien acquired by levy of the writ shall be recognized and enforced by the court for the district in which the estate of the deceased is located. The execution lien may be enforced—
(A) against the executor, administrator, or personal representative of the estate of the deceased; or
(B) if there be none, against the deceased’s property coming to the heirs or devisees or at their option against cash in their possession, but only to the extent of the value of the property coming to them.
(3) Records of united states marshal.—
(A) A United States marshal receiving a writ of execution shall endorse thereon the exact hour and date of receipt.
(B) The United States marshal shall make a written record of every levy, specify the property on which levy is made, the date on which levy is made, and the marshal’s costs, expenses, and fees.
(C) The United States marshal shall make a written return to the court on each writ of execution stating concisely what is done pursuant to the writ and shall deliver a copy to counsel for the United States who requests the writ. The writ shall be returned not more than—
(i) 90 days after the date of issuance if levy is not made; or
(ii) 10 days after the date of sale of property on which levy is made.
(e) Appointment of Receiver.— Pending the levy of execution, the court may appoint a receiver to manage property described in such writ if there is a substantial danger that the property will be removed from the jurisdiction of the court, lost, materially injured or damaged, or mismanaged.
(f) Replevy; Redemption.—
(1) Before execution sale.—
(A) Before execution sale, the United States marshal may return property  [1] to the judgment debtor any personal property taken in execution, on—
(i) satisfaction of the judgment, interest, and costs, and any costs incurred in connection with scheduling the sale; or
(ii) receipt from the judgment debtor of a bond—
(I) payable to the United States, with 2 or more good and sufficient sureties to be approved by the marshal, conditioned on the delivery of the property to the marshal at the time and place named in the bond to be sold under subsection (g); or
(II) for the payment to the marshal of a fair value thereof which shall be stated in the bond.
(B) A judgment debtor who sells or disposes of property replevied under subparagraph (A) shall pay the United States marshal the stipulated value of such property.
(C) If the judgment debtor fails to deliver such property to the United States marshal pursuant to the terms of the delivery described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) and fails to pay the United States marshal the stipulated value of such property, the United States marshal shall endorse the bond “forfeited” and return it to the court from which the writ of execution issued. If the judgment is not fully satisfied, the court shall issue a writ of execution against the judgment debtor and the sureties on the bond for the amount due, not exceeding the stipulated value of the property, on which execution no delivery bond shall be taken, which instruction shall be endorsed on the writ.
(2) After execution sale.— The judgment debtor shall not be entitled to redeem the property after the execution sale.
(g) Execution Sale.—
(1) General procedures.— An execution sale under this section shall be conducted in a commercially reasonable manner—
(A) Sale of real property.—
(i) In general.—
(I) Except as provided in clause (ii), real property, or any interest therein, shall be sold, after the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of levy under subsection (d), for cash at public auction at the courthouse of the county, parish, or city in which the greater part of the property is located or on the premises or some parcel thereof.
(II) The court may order the sale of any real property after the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date of levy under subsection (d) if the court determines that such property is likely to perish, waste, be destroyed, or otherwise substantially depreciate in value during the 90-day period beginning on the date of levy.
(III) The time and place of sale of real property, or any interest therein, under execution shall be advertised by the United States marshal, by publication of notice, once a week for at least 3 weeks prior to the sale, in at least one newspaper of general circulation in the county or parish where the property is located. The first publication shall appear not less than 25 days preceding the day of sale. The notice shall contain a statement of the authority by which the sale is to be made, the time of levy, the time and place of sale, and a brief description of the property to be sold, sufficient to identify the property (such as a street address for urban property and the survey identification and location for rural property), but it shall not be necessary for the notice to contain field notes. Such property shall be open for inspection and appraisal, subject to the judgment debtor’s reasonable objections, for a reasonable period before the day of sale.
(IV) The United States marshal shall serve written notice of public sale by personal delivery, or certified or registered mail, to each person whom the marshal has reasonable cause to believe, after a title search is conducted by the United States, has an interest in property under execution, including lienholders, co-owners, and tenants, at least 25 days before the day of sale, to the last known address of each such person.
(ii) Sale of city lots.— If the real property consists of several lots, tracts, or parcels in a city or town, each lot, tract, or parcel shall be offered for sale separately, unless not susceptible to separate sale because of the character of improvements.
(iii) Sale of rural property.— If the real property is not located in a city or town, the judgment debtor may—
(I) divide the property into lots of not less than 50 acres or in such greater or lesser amounts as ordered by the court;
(II) furnish a survey of such prepared by a registered surveyor; and
(III) designate the order in which those lots shall be sold.  When a sufficient number of lots are sold to satisfy the amount of the execution and costs of sale, the marshal shall stop the sale.
(B) Sale of personal property.—
(i) Personal property levied on shall be offered for sale on the premises where it is located at the time of levy, at the courthouse of the county, parish or city wherein it is located, or at another location if ordered by the court. Personal property susceptible of being exhibited shall not be sold unless it is present and subject to the view of those attending the sale unless—
(I) the property consists of shares of stock in corporations;
(II) by reason of the nature of the property, it is impractical to exhibit it; or
(III) the debtor’s interest in the property does not include the right to the exclusive possession.
(ii)
(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), personal property, or any interest therein, shall be sold after the expiration of the 30-day period beginning on the date of levy under subsection (d).
(II) The court may order the sale of any personal property before the expiration of such 30-day period if the court determines that such property is likely to perish, waste, be destroyed, or otherwise substantially depreciate in value during such 30-day period.
(iii) Notice of the time and place of the sale of personal property shall be given by the United States marshal by posting notice thereof for not less than 10 days successively immediately before the day of sale at the courthouse of any county, parish, or city, and at the place where the sale is to be made.
(iv) The United States marshal shall serve written notice of public sale by personal delivery, or registered or certified mail at their last known addresses, on the judgment debtor and other persons who the marshal has reasonable cause to believe, after diligent inquiry, have a substantial interest in the property.
(2) Postponement of sale.— The United States marshal may postpone an execution sale from time to time by continuing the required posting or publication of notice until the date to which the sale is postponed, and appending, at the foot of each such notice of a current copy of the following:
“The above sale is postponed until the        day of          , 19  , at    o’clock   .M.,            , United States Marshal for the District of            , by                , Deputy, dated            .”
(3) Sale procedures.—
(A) Bidding requirements.— A bidder at an execution sale of property, may be required by the United States marshal to make a cash deposit of as much as 20 percent of the sale price proposed before the bid is accepted.
(B) Resale of property.— If the terms of the sale are not complied with by the successful bidder, the United States marshal shall proceed to sell the property again on the same day if there is sufficient time. If there is insufficient time, the marshal shall schedule and notice a subsequent sale of the property as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2).
(4) Rights and liabilities of purchasers.—
(A) Transfer of title after sale.—
(i) If property is sold under this subsection and the successful bidder complies with the terms of the sale, the United States marshal shall execute and deliver all documents necessary to transfer to the successful bidder, without warranty, all the rights, titles, interests, and claims of the judgment debtor in the property.
(ii) If the successful bidder dies before execution and delivery of the documents needed to transfer ownership, the United States marshal shall execute and deliver them to the successful bidder’s estate. Such delivery to the estate shall have the same effect as if accomplished during the lifetime of the purchaser.
(B) Purchaser considered innocent purchaser without notice.— The purchaser of property sold under execution shall be deemed to be an innocent purchaser without notice if the purchaser would have been considered an innocent purchaser without notice had the sale been made voluntarily and in person by the judgment debtor.
(C) Liability of successful bidder who fails to comply.— A successful bidder at an execution sale who fails to comply with the terms of the sale shall forfeit to the United States the cash deposit or, at the election of the United States, shall be liable to the United States, on a subsequent sale of the property, for all net losses incurred by the United States as a result of such failure.
(h) Disposition of Proceeds; Further Levy.—
(1) Distribution of sale proceeds.—
(A) The United States marshal shall first deliver to the judgment debtor such amounts to which the judgment debtor is entitled from the sale of partially exempt property.
(B) The United States marshal shall next deduct from the proceeds of an execution sale of property an amount equal to the reasonable expenses incurred in making the levy of execution and in keeping and maintaining the property.
(C) Except as provided in subparagraph (D), the United States marshal shall deliver the balance of the proceeds to the counsel for the United States as soon as practicable.
(D) If more proceeds are received from the execution sale than is necessary to satisfy the executions held by the United States marshal, the marshal shall pay the surplus to the judgment debtor.
(2) Further levy if execution not satisfied.— If the proceeds of the execution sale of the property levied on are insufficient to satisfy the execution, the United States marshal shall proceed on the same writ of execution to levy other property of the judgment debtor.


[1]  So in original. The word “property” probably should not appear.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXVI, § 3611,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4950.)

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28 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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