Sec. 451. Definitions. 452. Courts always open; power unrestricted by expiration of sessions. [1]    So in original. Does not conform to section catchline. 453. Oath of justices and judges. [1] 454. Practice of law by justices and judges. 455. Disqualification of justice, judge, or magistrate judge. 456. Traveling expenses of justices and judges; official duty stations. 457. Records; obsolete papers. 458. Relative of justice or judge ineligible to appointment. 459. Administration of oaths and acknowledgments. 460. Application to other courts. 461. Adjustments in certain salaries. 462. Court accommodations. 463. Expenses of litigation.

1982—Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §§ 115(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), 116 (b),Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 31, 32, inserted “; official duty stations” in item 456, substituted “other courts” for “Canal Zone, Guam and Virgin Islands” in item 460, and added items 462 and 463.
1978—Pub. L. 95–598, title II, §§ 214(c), 217(b),Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2661, struck out “Alaska,” after “Application to” in item 460 and struck out reference to referees in bankruptcy in item 455.
1975—Pub. L. 94–82, title II, § 205(a)(2),Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 422, added item 461.
1974—Pub. L. 93–512, § 2,Dec. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 1610, substituted “Disqualification of justice, judge, magistrate, or referee in bankruptcy” for “Interest of justice or judge” in item 455.
1963—Pub. L. 88–139, § 3(b),Oct. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 248, substituted “power unrestricted by expiration of sessions” for “powers unrestricted by terms” in item 452.
1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, § 42,65 Stat. 725, inserted “, Guam” in item 460.
Change of Name

Words “magistrate judge” substituted for “magistrate” in item 455 pursuant to section 321 ofPub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of this title.

[1]  So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for the contained sections. If there are multiple sections, they are presented in section number order (original document order).

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

28 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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