U.S. Code: Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

Current through 113–65 This title was enacted by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 1,62 Stat. 869   Part Sec. I. Organization of Courts 1 II. Department of Justice 501 III. Court Officers and Employees 601 IV. Jurisdiction and Venue 1251 V. Procedure 1651 VI. Particular Proceedings 2201
Amendments

1966—Pub. L. 89–554, § 4(a),Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 611, substituted “Department of Justice” for “United States Attorneys and Marshals” in item for part II.

Table Showing Disposition of All Sections of Former Title 28
Title 28 Former Sections Title 28 New Sections
1–4bb 132–134
1 nt 133
5 135
5a T. 48 § 1392a
5b Elim.
6, 7 751
8 751, 954
9 604, 755
9a 1915
9a(a) 753, 1920
9a(b) 753
9a(c) 550, 604, 753, 1915
9a(d) 753
9a(e) 1915
9b Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75.
10 457
11, 12 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 6(c), Cr. Proc. R. 45(c).
13 452
14 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 45(c).
15 141
16 140, 296
17 291, 292, 295, 296
18 296
19 Rep.
20 295
21 292
22 291, 296
23 296
24 455
25 144
26 143
27 137
41(1) 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, 1359
41(2) Rep.
41(3) 1333, 1356
41(4) Rep.
41(5) 1340
41(6) 1339
41(7) 1338
41(8) 1337
41(9) 1355
41(10) Rep.
41(11) 1357
41(12–14) 1343
41(15) 1344
41(16) 1348
41(17) 1350
41(18) 1351
41(19) 1334
41(20) 1346, 2401, 2402
41(21) Rep.
41(22) Rep.
41(23) 1337
41(24) 1353
41(25) 1357, 1399
41(26) 1335, 1397, 2361
41(27), (28) 1336
42 1349
43 1398
44 2321
45 Rep.
45a 2323
46 2324
47 1253, 2101, 2284, 2325
47a 1253, 2101, 2284
48 2322
49–51 Rep.
52 Elim.
53 T. 15 § 146a
71 1441, 1445, 1447
72 1446, 1447
73 Rep.
74 1443, 1446, 1447
75 1446
76 1442, 1446, 1447
77 1442
78 1449
79 1450
80 1359, 1447, 1919
81 1447
82 Rep.
83 1447, 1448
101 T. 18 § 3235
102 T. 18 § 3238
103 T. 18 § 3237
104 1395
105 1396
106–108 1395
109 1400, 1694
110 1394
111 1391
112 1391, 1401, 1693, 1695
113 1392
114 1393, 1441
115 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(f).
116 1392
117 754, 1692
118 1655
119 1404
120 Rep.
121 1405; T. 18 § 3240
122 1656
123 Rep.
124 959; T. 18 § 1911
124a 960
125 959
126 458
127 957
128 604, 752
141 Rep.
142 81
143 82
144 83
145 84
146 85, 140
147 86
148 87
149 89
149a, 149b Rep.
150 90
150a Rep.
151 92
152 93
153 94
154, 155 Rep.
156, 156a 95
157 96
158 97
159 98
160 99
161 Rep.
162 Rep.
163 1404
164 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 77.
165 Rep.
166 100
167 101
168 102
169 103
170 104
171 105
172 106
173 107
174 108
175 109
176 110
177 111
178, 178a 112
179 113
179a Elim.
180 114
181 115, 1865
182 116, 138
182a 116
183 117
184 118
184a Elim.
185 120
186 121
186a Elim.
187 122
188 123
189 124
189a Elim.
190 125
191 126
192, 192a 127
193 128
194 129
195 130
196 131
211 41
211a Rep.
212 43, 46
213 44
213a–213h Elim.
214 Rep.
215 42
216 45, 47, 292
216a 45
217 Rep.
218 231, 456
219 2071
220 547
221 711, 956
222 711, 954
222a 604, 712
223 48
224 Rep.
225(a) 1291, 1293
225(b) 1292
225(c) Rep.
225(d) 1294
225(e), (f) Rep.
226 Rep.
227 1292
227a 1292, 2107
228, 228a Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73.
229 Rep.
230 2107
231 2108
241 171, 173, 453
242 Rep.
243 174, 175
244 791, 795, 956
245 604
246 952
247 Rep.
248 415, 791
249 T. 18 § 282
250(1) 1491, 1501
250(2) 1503, 2501
250(3) 1496
250a 1497, 2501
250b Rep.
251 Rep.
252 2508
253 2512
254 1493, 2510
255 2510
256 Rep.
257 1492, 2509
258 2412
259 1502
259a T. 25 § 70w (Rep. See T. 28 § 1505).
260 1500
261 2502
262 2501
263 792, 2071
264 459, 953
265 Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 1, 10, 16 et seq.1
266 Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 10.1
267, 268 Rep.
268a 604, 793
269 792, 2503
270 456, 792, 794
271 Rep.
272 2507
273 Rep.
274 2504
275, 275a 2505
276 2503
277 Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 40 et seq.1
278 2503
278a 604, 793
279, 280 2514
281, 282 2515
283 2520
283a 791, 2520
284 2516
285 2517
286 2519
287 1494, 2511
288 1255
289 791
290, 291 Rep.
292 2506
293 Rep.
296 251–254, 456, 1581, 2071, 2639, 2640
296a 456
297 2636
301 211–213, 215, 293, 296
301a 213
301b (See former 301a)
302 214, 452, 456, 604
303 604, 832
304 604, 831, 956, 957, 1926
305 604, 831, 833, 834, 956
306 604, 834
307 211, 2071
308 1256, 1541
309 Rep.
309a 1542
310 2601
311 Rep.
312 216
321 1
322 4
323 3
324 5
325 671–673
326 671, 1737
327 671, 954
328 675
329 6
330 1911
331 672
332, 333 673
334 411
335 412
336 Elim.
337 413
338 2
339, 340 Rep.
341 1251
342 1651
343 1872
344 1257, 2103, 2106
345 Rep.
346, 347 1254
348, 349 Rep.
349a 1252, 2101
350 2101
351 2102
352 Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 32.
353 Rep.
354 676
371(1) Rep.
371(2) 1355
371(3) 1333
371(4) 1333, 1356
371(5) 1338
371(6) 1334
371(7) 1251
371(8) 1251, 1351
372 453
373 454
374 456
374a Elim.
374b 604
374c, 374d 752
375 136, 294, 371
375a 294, 371
375b–375d 372
375e Rep.
375f 294
375g, 375h 373
376, 377 1651
377a–377c D.C. Code, §§ 16–3501 to 16–3503
378 Rep.
379 2283
380 1253, 2101, 2281, 2284
380a 1253, 2101, 2282, 2284
381 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65.
382 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65(c).
383 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65(d).
384 Rep.
385 459; T. 18 § 401
386 T. 18 §§ 402, 3691
387 T. 18 § 402
388 Rep.
389 T. 18 §§ 402, 3691
390 T. 18 § 3285
390a T. 18 § 402
391 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 59, 61; Cr. Proc. R. 33, 52.
392 T. 18 § 3043
393 T. 22 § 258a
394 1654
395 556, 955
396 556, 955
397, 398 Rep.
399 1653
400 2201, 2202
401 2403
402 374
411 1861
412, 412a 1864
413 1865
414 Rep.
415 1861, 1863
416 1867, 1868
417 1866, 1868
417a Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 24(c).
418 1866
419 T. 18 § 3321
420 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(c).
421 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(a), (g).
422 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(g).
423 1869
424 1870
425 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 24(b).
426 Rep.
430, 430a Rep.
431–432a Rep.
433, 434 Rep.
441–443 Rep.
444 601, 603, 606, 608
445 602, 603, 607
446 604, 609
447 604, 605
448 332
449 333, 456
450 333, 604, 610
451–453 2241
454 2242
455–461 2243
462 2252
463(a) 2253
463(b)–(d) Rep.
464 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73–75, 81(a)(2).
465 2251
466 2253
481 501
481a Elim.
482 504
483 502
484 550
485–489 547
490 541
490a Elim.
491 541
492, 493 542
494 543
495 548
496–498 564
499 564, 1737
500–502 564
503 547
504 549
504a T. 18 § 3053
505 550
506 546
507 554
508 555
509, 510 Rep.
511 506, 544, 545
512 951
513, 514 952, 1737
515–517 952
518, 519 Rep.
520 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 81(b).
521 Rep.
522 T. 18 § 2076
523 953
523a, 523b 457
524 505, 541, 751
525 636, 953
526 631
527 631, 958
528 638
528a 638, 639
529 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 55.
530 413, 414
530a Elim.
531 T. 18 § 1910
541, 542 671
543 1913
544 604, 711, 961, 962
545 604
546 711
547 604, 713
548 Rep.
549 1914
550, 551 Rep.
552 1917
553 1914
554 Rep.
555 1914
556 Rep.
557 604, 751
558 604
559 Rep.
560 604, 962
561, 561a 604
562 604, 962
563 604, 961
564 Rep.
565, 566 604
567–569 751
570 Rep.
571, 572 1923
572a T. 18 § 155
573 Rep.
574 553, 1921
575 Rep.
576 553
577 551, 1929
578 1923
578a 551
578b, 578c Rep.
579 508, 552
580 508
581 Rep.
582, 583 552, 553
584, 584a, 585 553
586 509, 550
586a Rep.
587 509, 553
588, 589 Rep.
590 T. 18 § 203
591 Rep.
592 509
593 510
594 502
595, 596 604, 755
597–597c 635
598–599a 636
600–600b 1871
600c 1821, 1825
600d Rep.
601 Elim.
602 1824
603–604a 1823
605 Rep.
606, 607 T. 44 §§ 325, 326 (See Rev. T. 44 Table)
608 1825, 1871
609 Rep.
631 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 43.
632 T. 18 § 3481
633 Rep.
634 T. 18 § 3486
635 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 43(a).
636 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 34, 55.
637 2072, 2073
638 1731
639–641 Note prec. 1781
642 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 28.
643, 644 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 26 et seq.
645 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 27(a)(4).
646 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 26 et seq.
647 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45; Cr. Proc. R. 17.
648 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45(d); Cr. Proc. R. 17(f).
649–652 1782
653 1781, 1782
654 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45(e)(1); Cr. Proc. R. 17(e).
655 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45; Cr. Proc. R. 17.
656 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 17(b).
657 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 46(b).
658 Rep.
659 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 46(b).
660 Rep.
661–667 1733
668 T. 18 § 3497
669 Rep.
670 1743
671 1733
672 Rep.
673 1744
674 1745
675 Rep.
676 1736
677 1740
678–680 Rep.
681–684 1734
685, 686 1735
687 1738
688 1739
689 1742
690 T. 30 § 53
695 1732
695a T. 18 § 3491
695b T. 18 § 3492
695c T. 18 § 3493
695d T. 18 § 3494
695e 1741
695e–1 T. 22 § 4222
695f T. 18 § 3495
695g T. 18 § 3496
695h Rep.
701 1782
702 1785
703, 704 1782
711–713 1783
714–718 1784
721 1691
722 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4.
723 2071, 2073
723a T. 18 § 3772
723a–1 T. 18 § 3771
723b, 723c 2072
724 Rep.
725 1652
726 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 64.
727 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 69.
728 Rep.
729 T. 42 § 1988
730 2072, 2073
731 2071
732–734 Rep.
735 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4; Cr. Proc. R. 4, 9; Adm. R. 1.2
736 Rep.
737 See 2710
738 See 2711
739 See 2712
740 See 2713
741 See 2714
742 See 2715
743 See 2716
744 See 2717
745 Rep.
746 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 64.
747 2463
748–750 2405
751, 752 Rep.
753 Adm. R. 6–8, 10, 12 2
754 2464
755–757 Rep.
758 636
759, 760 Rep.
761 2071, 2072
762 1402
763 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(d), 12(a), 55(e).
764 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 52, 75.
765 2411
766 2409
767 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(h).
768 Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 20.
769 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 40.
770 1873
771 Adm. R. 461/2 2
772 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 39(c), 48.
773 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 38 et seq.
774 2406
775 Rep.
776 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 46, 63, 75.
777 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 1, 15, 61.
778–780 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 25, 81.
780a 2404
781 2407
782 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 12(a).
783 Rep.
784 T. 19 § 579
785 1874
786 Rep.
787 T. 19 § 580
788 See 2718
789 Rep.
790 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75; Adm. R. 49.2
791 2462
792 2284
811 1961
811a Rep.
812 1962
813 Rep.
814 1962
815 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 41(d), 42(a), 54(d), 68.
816 Rep.
817 Elim.
818 2465
819 Rep.
820 Rep.
821 1928
822 1918
823, 824 Rep.
825 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 42(a).
826 Rep.
827 2465
828 1922
829 1927
830 1920
831 1924
832–836 1915
837 1916
838 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4.
839 2413
840 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 59, 62.
841 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 62(f).
842 2006
843–845 2007
846 2005
847 2001
848 2004
849 2002
850 2003
851 2041
852 2042
861 Rep.
861a Rep.
861b Elim.
862 Rep.
863 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75; Adm. R. 49.2
864 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75(k).
865–867 Rep.
868 Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 10, 36.
869 Rep.
870 2408
871 2104
872 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73.
873 Rep.
874 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 62(d), 73(d); Sup. Ct. R. 36.
875 Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 46, 52, 73, 75.
876, 877 2106
878 1912
879 2105
880 Rep.
901, 902 2410
903 1444
904, 905 2410
906 Rep.
921 2672
922 2673
931(a) 1346, 1402, 2402, 2411, 2412, 2674
931(b) 2675, 2676
932 1346, 2411
933(a)(1) 1291
933(a)(2) 1504, 2110
933(b) Rep.
934 2677
941 2671
942 2401
943 2680
944 2678
945 2679
946 Elim.
1 Court of Claims Rules were replaced by U.S. Claims Court Rules effective Oct. 1, 1982, and subsequently by United States Court of Federal Claims Rules effective Dec. 4, 1992.
2 Admiralty Rules were superseded July 1, 1966, by Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims.

Enactment Into Law; Citation

Section 1 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, provided in part: “That title 28 of the United States Code, entitled ‘Judicial Code and Judiciary’ is hereby revised, codified, and enacted into law, and may be cited as ‘Title 28, United States Code, section XXX.’ ”
Legislative Construction

Section 33 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 991, provided that: “No inference of a legislative construction is to be drawn by reason of the chapter in Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, in which any section is placed, nor by reason of the catchlines used in such title.”
Separability

Section 34 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 991, provided that: “If any part of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, shall be held invalid, the remainder shall not be affected thereby.”
Effective Date

Section 38 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 992, provided that: “The provisions of this Act shall take effect on September 1, 1948.”
Repeals; Rights and Liabilities Saved

Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39,62 Stat. 992, repealed the sections or parts thereof of the Revised Statutes of the United States, Statutes at Large, or the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia covering provisions codified in this title, but saved any rights or liabilities then existing under said sections or parts thereof.
R.S. § 1012 as affected by act Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291,36 Stat. 1167 [section 880 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that appeals from district courts shall be subject to the same rules, regulations, and restrictions as are or may be prescribed in law in cases of writs of error. This provision was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39,62 Stat. 992. Section 2 of act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, 45 Stat. 54, as amended Apr. 26, 1928, ch. 440, 45 Stat. 466; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 23,62 Stat. 990 [section 861b of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that: “All Acts of Congress referring to writs of error shall be construed as amended to the extent necessary to substitute appeal for writ of error.”
Writs of Error

Act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, § 1,45 Stat. 54 [section 861a of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that: “The writ of error in cases, civil and criminal, is abolished. All relief which heretofore [Jan. 31, 1928] could be obtained by writ of error shall hereafter be obtainable by appeal.” This provision was omitted from the 1948 Revised Judicial Code as obsolete, and repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39,62 Stat. 992.
Title 28 as Continuation of Existing Law; Change of Name of Circuit Courts of Appeals

Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 2(b),62 Stat. 985, provided that: “The provisions of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, of the United States Code, set out in section 1 of this Act, with respect to the organization of each of the several courts therein provided for and of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, shall be construed as continuations of existing law, and the tenure of the judges, officers, and employees thereof and of the United States attorneys and marshals and their deputies and assistants, in office on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 1, 1948], shall not be affected by its enactment, but each of them shall continue to serve in the same capacity under the appropriate provisions of title 28, as set out in section 1 of this Act, pursuant to his prior appointment: Provided, however, That each circuit court of appeals shall, as in said title 28 set out, hereafter be known as a United States court of appeals. No loss of rights, interruption of jurisdiction, or prejudice to matters pending in any of such courts on the effective date of this Act shall result from its enactment.”

 

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