29 U.S. Code § 1182 - Prohibiting discrimination against individual participants and beneficiaries based on health status

(a) In eligibility to enroll
(1) In general
Subject to paragraph (2), a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may not establish rules for eligibility (including continued eligibility) of any individual to enroll under the terms of the plan based on any of the following health status-related factors in relation to the individual or a dependent of the individual:
(A) Health status.
(B) Medical condition (including both physical and mental illnesses).
(C) Claims experience.
(D) Receipt of health care.
(E) Medical history.
(F) Genetic information.
(G) Evidence of insurability (including conditions arising out of acts of domestic violence).
(H) Disability.
(2) No application to benefits or exclusions
To the extent consistent with section 1181 of this title, paragraph (1) shall not be construed—
(A) to require a group health plan, or group health insurance coverage, to provide particular benefits other than those provided under the terms of such plan or coverage, or
(B) to prevent such a plan or coverage from establishing limitations or restrictions on the amount, level, extent, or nature of the benefits or coverage for similarly situated individuals enrolled in the plan or coverage.
(3) Construction
For purposes of paragraph (1), rules for eligibility to enroll under a plan include rules defining any applicable waiting periods for such enrollment.
(b) In premium contributions
(1) In general
A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may not require any individual (as a condition of enrollment or continued enrollment under the plan) to pay a premium or contribution which is greater than such premium or contribution for a similarly situated individual enrolled in the plan on the basis of any health status-related factor in relation to the individual or to an individual enrolled under the plan as a dependent of the individual.
(2) Construction
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed—
(A) to restrict the amount that an employer may be charged for coverage under a group health plan except as provided in paragraph (3); or
(B) to prevent a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, from establishing premium discounts or rebates or modifying otherwise applicable copayments or deductibles in return for adherence to programs of health promotion and disease prevention.
(3) No group-based discrimination on basis of genetic information
(A) In general
For purposes of this section, a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may not adjust premium or contribution amounts for the group covered under such plan on the basis of genetic information.
(B) Rule of construction
Nothing in subparagraph (A) or in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (d) shall be construed to limit the ability of a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan to increase the premium for an employer based on the manifestation of a disease or disorder of an individual who is enrolled in the plan. In such case, the manifestation of a disease or disorder in one individual cannot also be used as genetic information about other group members and to further increase the premium for the employer.
(c) Genetic testing
(1) Limitation on requesting or requiring genetic testing
A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, shall not request or require an individual or a family member of such individual to undergo a genetic test.
(2) Rule of construction
Paragraph (1) shall not be construed to limit the authority of a health care professional who is providing health care services to an individual to request that such individual undergo a genetic test.
(3) Rule of construction regarding payment
(A) In general
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to preclude a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, from obtaining and using the results of a genetic test in making a determination regarding payment (as such term is defined for the purposes of applying the regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under part C of title XI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1320d et seq.] and section 264 of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as may be revised from time to time) consistent with subsection (a).
(B) Limitation
For purposes of subparagraph (A), a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may request only the minimum amount of information necessary to accomplish the intended purpose.
(4) Research exception
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, may request, but not require, that a participant or beneficiary undergo a genetic test if each of the following conditions is met:
(A) The request is made, in writing, pursuant to research that complies with part 46 of title 45, Code of Federal Regulations, or equivalent Federal regulations, and any applicable State or local law or regulations for the protection of human subjects in research.
(B) The plan or issuer clearly indicates to each participant or beneficiary, or in the case of a minor child, to the legal guardian of such beneficiary, to whom the request is made that—
(i) compliance with the request is voluntary; and
(ii) non-compliance will have no effect on enrollment status or premium or contribution amounts.
(C) No genetic information collected or acquired under this paragraph shall be used for underwriting purposes.
(D) The plan or issuer notifies the Secretary in writing that the plan or issuer is conducting activities pursuant to the exception provided for under this paragraph, including a description of the activities conducted.
(E) The plan or issuer complies with such other conditions as the Secretary may by regulation require for activities conducted under this paragraph.
(d) Prohibition on collection of genetic information
(1) In general
A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, shall not request, require, or purchase genetic information for underwriting purposes (as defined in section 1191b of this title).
(2) Prohibition on collection of genetic information prior to enrollment
A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, shall not request, require, or purchase genetic information with respect to any individual prior to such individual’s enrollment under the plan or coverage in connection with such enrollment.
(3) Incidental collection
If a group health plan, or a health insurance issuer offering health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, obtains genetic information incidental to the requesting, requiring, or purchasing of other information concerning any individual, such request, requirement, or purchase shall not be considered a violation of paragraph (2) if such request, requirement, or purchase is not in violation of paragraph (1).
(e) Application to all plans
The provisions of subsections (a)(1)(F), (b)(3), (c), and (d), andsubsection (b)(1) andsection 1181 of this title with respect to genetic information, shall apply to group health plans and health insurance issuers without regard to section 1191a (a) of this title.
(f) Genetic information of a fetus or embryo
Any reference in this part to genetic information concerning an individual or family member of an individual shall—
(1) with respect to such an individual or family member of an individual who is a pregnant woman, include genetic information of any fetus carried by such pregnant woman; and
(2) with respect to an individual or family member utilizing an assisted reproductive technology, include genetic information of any embryo legally held by the individual or family member.

Source

(Pub. L. 93–406, title I, § 702, as added Pub. L. 104–191, title I, § 101(a),Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1945; amended Pub. L. 110–233, title I, § 101(a)–(c), May 21, 2008, 122 Stat. 883, 885.)
References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part C of title XI of the Act is classified generally to part C (§ 1320d et seq.) of subchapter XI of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
Section 264 of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A), is section 264 ofPub. L. 104–191, which is set out as a note under section 1320d–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–233, § 101(a)(1), inserted “except as provided in paragraph (3)” before semicolon.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–233, § 101(a)(2), added par. (3).
Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 110–233, § 101(b), added subsecs. (c) to (e).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–233, § 101(c), added subsec. (f).
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–233applicable with respect to group health plans for plan years beginning after the date that is one year after May 21, 2008, see section 101(f)(2) ofPub. L. 110–233, set out as a note under section 1132 of this title.

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29 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

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29 CFR - Labor

29 CFR Part 2520 - RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE

29 CFR Part 2590 - RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS

 

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