29 U.S. Code § 214 - Employment under special certificates

(a) Learners, apprentices, messengers
The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulations or by orders provide for the employment of learners, of apprentices, and of messengers employed primarily in delivering letters and messages, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Secretary, at such wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 206 of this title and subject to such limitations as to time, number, proportion, and length of service as the Secretary shall prescribe.
(b) Students
(1)
(A) The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by special certificate issued under a regulation or order provide, in accordance with subparagraph (B), for the employment, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the otherwise applicable wage rate in effect under section 206 of this title or not less than $1.60 an hour, whichever is the higher, of full-time students (regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws) in retail or service establishments.
(B) Except as provided in paragraph (4)(B), during any month in which full-time students are to be employed in any retail or service establishment under certificates issued under this subsection the proportion of student hours of employment to the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment may not exceed—
(i) in the case of a retail or service establishment whose employees (other than employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce) were covered by this chapter before the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974—
(I) the proportion of student hours of employment to the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment for the corresponding month of the immediately preceding twelve-month period,
(II) the maximum proportion for any corresponding month of student hours of employment to the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment applicable to the issuance of certificates under this section at any time before the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974 for the employment of students by such employer, or
(III) a proportion equal to one-tenth of the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment,
whichever is greater;
(ii) in the case of retail or service establishment whose employees (other than employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce) are covered for the first time on or after the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974—
(I) the proportion of hours of employment of students in such establishment to the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment for the corresponding month of the twelve-month period immediately prior to the effective date of such Amendments,
(II) the proportion of student hours of employment to the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment for the corresponding month of the immediately preceding twelve-month period, or
(III) a proportion equal to one-tenth of the total hours of employment of all employees in such establishment,
whichever is greater; or
(iii) in the case of a retail or service establishment for which records of student hours worked are not available, the proportion of student hours of employment to the total hours of employment of all employees based on the practice during the immediately preceding twelve-month period in
(I) similar establishments of the same employer in the same general metropolitan area in which such establishment is located,
(II) similar establishments of the same or nearby communities if such establishment is not in a metropolitan area, or
(III) other establishments of the same general character operating in the community or the nearest comparable community.
For purpose of clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of this subparagraph, the term “student hours of employment” means hours during which students are employed in a retail or service establishment under certificates issued under this subsection.
(2) The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by special certificate issued under a regulation or order provide for the employment, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the wage rate in effect under section 206 (a)(5)  [1] of this title or not less than $1.30 an hour, whichever is the higher, of full-time students (regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws) in any occupation in agriculture.
(3) The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by special certificate issued under a regulation or order provide for the employment by an institution of higher education, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the otherwise applicable wage rate in effect under section 206 of this title or not less than $1.60 an hour, whichever is the higher, of full-time students (regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws) who are enrolled in such institution. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe standards and requirements to insure that this paragraph will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those to whom the minimum wage rate authorized by this paragraph is applicable.
(4)
(A) A special certificate issued under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall provide that the student or students for whom it is issued shall, except during vacation periods, be employed on a part-time basis and not in excess of twenty hours in any workweek.
(B) If the issuance of a special certificate under paragraph (1) or (2) for an employer will cause the number of students employed by such employer under special certificates issued under this subsection to exceed six, the Secretary may not issue such a special certificate for the employment of a student by such employer unless the Secretary finds employment of such student will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those employed under special certificates issued under this subsection. If the issuance of a special certificate under paragraph (1) or (2) for an employer will not cause the number of students employed by such employer under special certificates issued under this subsection to exceed six—
(i) the Secretary may issue a special certificate under paragraph (1) or (2) for the employment of a student by such employer if such employer certifies to the Secretary that the employment of such student will not reduce the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those employed under special certificates issued under this subsection, and
(ii) in the case of an employer which is a retail or service establishment, subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the issuance of special certificates for such employer under such paragraph.
The requirement of this subparagraph shall not apply in the case of the issuance of special certificates under paragraph (3) for the employment of full-time students by institutions of higher education; except that if the Secretary determines that an institution of higher education is employing students under certificates issued under paragraph (3) but in violation of the requirements of that paragraph or of regulations issued thereunder, the requirements of this subparagraph shall apply with respect to the issuance of special certificates under paragraph (3) for the employment of students by such institution.
(C) No special certificate may be issued under this subsection unless the employer for whom the certificate is to be issued provides evidence satisfactory to the Secretary of the student status of the employees to be employed under such special certificate.
(D) To minimize paperwork for, and to encourage, small businesses to employ students under special certificates issued under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Secretary shall, by regulation or order, prescribe a simplified application form to be used by employers in applying for such a certificate for the employment of not more than six full-time students. Such an application shall require only—
(i) a listing of the name, address, and business of the applicant employer,
(ii) a listing of the date the applicant began business, and
(iii) the certification that the employment of such full-time students will not reduce the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than persons employed under special certificates.
(c) Handicapped workers
(1) The Secretary, to the extent necessary to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulation or order provide for the employment, under special certificates, of individuals (including individuals employed in agriculture) whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by age, physical or mental deficiency, or injury, at wages which are—
(A) lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 206 of this title,
(B) commensurate with those paid to nonhandicapped workers, employed in the vicinity in which the individuals under the certificates are employed, for essentially the same type, quality, and quantity of work, and
(C) related to the individual’s productivity.
(2) The Secretary shall not issue a certificate under paragraph (1) unless the employer provides written assurances to the Secretary that—
(A) in the case of individuals paid on an hourly rate basis, wages paid in accordance with paragraph (1) will be reviewed by the employer at periodic intervals at least once every six months, and
(B) wages paid in accordance with paragraph (1) will be adjusted by the employer at periodic intervals, at least once each year, to reflect changes in the prevailing wage paid to experienced nonhandicapped individuals employed in the locality for essentially the same type of work.
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), no employer shall be permitted to reduce the hourly wage rate prescribed by certificate under this subsection in effect on June 1, 1986, of any handicapped individual for a period of two years from such date without prior authorization of the Secretary.
(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit an employer from maintaining or establishing work activities centers to provide therapeutic activities for handicapped clients.
(5)
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, any employee receiving a special minimum wage at a rate specified pursuant to this subsection or the parent or guardian of such an employee may petition the Secretary to obtain a review of such special minimum wage rate. An employee or the employee’s parent or guardian may file such a petition for and in behalf of the employee or in behalf of the employee and other employees similarly situated. No employee may be a party to any such action unless the employee or the employee’s parent or guardian gives consent in writing to become such a party and such consent is filed with the Secretary.
(B) Upon receipt of a petition filed in accordance with subparagraph (A), the Secretary within ten days shall assign the petition to an administrative law judge appointed pursuant to section 3105 of title 5. The administrative law judge shall conduct a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5 with respect to such petition within thirty days after assignment.
(C) In any such proceeding, the employer shall have the burden of demonstrating that the special minimum wage rate is justified as necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment.
(D) In determining whether any special minimum wage rate is justified pursuant to subparagraph (C), the administrative law judge shall consider—
(i) the productivity of the employee or employees identified in the petition and the conditions under which such productivity was measured; and
(ii) the productivity of other employees performing work of essentially the same type and quality for other employers in the same vicinity.
(E) The administrative law judge shall issue a decision within thirty days after the hearing provided for in subparagraph (B). Such action shall be deemed to be a final agency action unless within thirty days the Secretary grants a request to review the decision of the administrative law judge. Either the petitioner or the employer may request review by the Secretary within fifteen days of the date of issuance of the decision by the administrative law judge.
(F) The Secretary, within thirty days after receiving a request for review, shall review the record and either adopt the decision of the administrative law judge or issue exceptions. The decision of the administrative law judge, together with any exceptions, shall be deemed to be a final agency action.
(G) A final agency action shall be subject to judicial review pursuant to chapter 7 of title 5. An action seeking such review shall be brought within thirty days of a final agency action described in subparagraph (F).
(d) Employment by schools
The Secretary may by regulation or order provide that sections 206 and 207 of this title shall not apply with respect to the employment by any elementary or secondary school of its students if such employment constitutes, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, an integral part of the regular education program provided by such school and such employment is in accordance with applicable child labor laws.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(June 25, 1938, ch. 676, § 14,52 Stat. 1068; Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 12,63 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 87–30, § 11,May 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 74; Pub. L. 89–601, title V, § 501,Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 842; Pub. L. 93–259, § 24(a), (b),Apr. 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 69, 72; Pub. L. 95–151, §§ 12, 13,Nov. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 1252; Pub. L. 99–486, Oct. 16, 1986, 100 Stat. 1229; Pub. L. 101–157, § 4(d),Nov. 17, 1989, 103 Stat. 941.)
References in Text

Effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i), (ii), means May 1, 1974, except as otherwise specifically provided, under provisions of section 29(a) ofPub. L. 93–259, set out as an Effective Date of 1974 Amendment note under section 202 of this title.
Section 206 (a)(5) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was redesignated section 206 (a)(4) of this title by Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, § 8103(c)(1)(B),May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 189.
Amendments

1989—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–157struck out “(or in the case of employment in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands not described in section 205 (e) of this title, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the otherwise applicable wage rate in effect under section 206 (c) of this title)” after “whichever is the higher”.
Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 101–157struck out “(or in the case of employment in Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands not described in section 205 (e) of this title, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the wage rate in effect under section 206 (c) of this title)” after “whichever is the higher”.
1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–486amended subsec. (c) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (5) provisions formerly contained in pars. (1) to (3).
1977—Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–151, § 12(a), substituted “six” for “four” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (b)(4)(D). Pub. L. 95–151, § 13, added subpar. (D).
1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–259, § 24(a), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which had provided: “The Secretary of Labor, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulations or by orders provide for the employment of learners, of apprentices, and of messengers employed primarily in delivery letters and messages, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Secretary, at such wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 206 of this title and subject to such limitations as to time, number, proportion, and length of service as the Secretary shall prescribe.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–259, § 24(a), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which had provided: “The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by regulation or order provide for the employment of full-time students, regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws, on a part-time basis in retail or service establishments (not to exceed twenty hours in any workweek) or on a part-time or full-time basis in such establishments during school vacations, under special certificates issued pursuant to regulations of the Secretary, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the minimum wage applicable under section 206 of this title, except that the proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of employment of all employees in any establishment may not exceed (1) such proportion for the corresponding month of the twelve-month period preceding May 1, 1961, (2) in the case of a retail or service establishment whose employees (other than employees engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce) are covered by this chapter for the first time on or after the effective date of the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1966, such proportion for the corresponding month of the twelve-month period immediately prior to such date, or (3) in the case of a retail or service establishment coming into existence after May 1, 1961, or a retail or service establishment for which records of student hours worked are not available, a proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of employment of all employees based on the practice during the twelve-month period preceding May 1, 1961, in (A) similar establishments of the same employer in the same general metropolitan area in which the new establishment is located, (B) similar establishments of the same employer in the same or nearby counties if the new establishment is not in a metropolitan area, or (C) other establishments of the same general character operating in the community or the nearest comparable community. Before the Secretary may issue a certificate under this subsection he must find that such employment will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those employed under this subsection.”
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 93–259, § 24(a), (b), struck out subsec. (c) and redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) had provided: “The Secretary, to the extent necessary in order to prevent curtailment of opportunities for employment, shall by certificate or order provide for the employment of full-time students, regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws, on a part-time basis in agriculture (not to exceed twenty hours in any workweek) or on a part-time or full-time basis in agriculture during school vacations, at a wage rate not less than 85 per centum of the minimum wage applicable under section 206 of this title. Before the Secretary may issue a certificate or order under this subsection he must find that such employment will not create a substantial probability of reducing the full-time employment opportunities of persons other than those employed under this subsection.”
1966—Pub. L. 89–601provided for employment of full-time students regardless of age but in compliance with applicable child labor laws outside of their school hours in retail or service establishments or in agriculture at not less than 85 percent of the minimum wage in full-time positions during school vacations or in part-time positions not to exceed 20 hours in any workweek under certificates issued by the Secretary, set out the formula for the allowable proportion of student hours of employment to total hours of employment, provided for the employment of handicapped workers at rates down to 50 percent of the applicable minimum wage and at even lower rates for persons suffering severe impairment, authorized the establishment of special rates for handicapped workers employed in work activities centers, and defined work activity centers.
1961—Pub. L. 87–30provided for employment of students in cl. (1).
1949—Act Oct. 26, 1949, substituted “primarily” for “exclusively” after “messengers employed”.
Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–151effective Nov. 1, 1977, see section 15(b) ofPub. L. 95–151, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.
Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–259effective May 1, 1974, see section 29(a) ofPub. L. 93–259, set out as a note under section 202 of this title.
Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–601effective Feb. 1, 1967, except as otherwise provided, see section 602 ofPub. L. 89–601, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.
Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–30effective upon expiration of one hundred and twenty days after May 5, 1961, except as otherwise provided, see section 14 ofPub. L. 87–30, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.
Effective Date of 1949 Amendment

Amendment by act Oct. 26, 1949, effective ninety days after Oct. 26, 1949, see section 16(a) of act Oct. 26, 1949, set out as a note under section 202 of this title.
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of Labor, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Labor, with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1950, §§ 1, 2,15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Rules, Regulations, and Orders Promulgated With Regard to 1966 Amendments

Secretary authorized to promulgate necessary rules, regulations, or orders on and after the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 89–601, Sept. 23, 1966, with regard to the amendments made by Pub. L. 89–601, see section 602 ofPub. L. 89–601, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.
Study of Wages Paid Handicapped Clients in Sheltered Workshops

Pub. L. 89–601, title VI, § 605,Sept. 23, 1966, 80 Stat. 845, instructed Secretary of Labor to commence a complete study of wage payments to handicapped clients of sheltered workshops and of feasibility of raising existing wage standards in such workshops. The Secretary was directed to report to Congress by July 1, 1967, findings of such study with appropriate recommendations.

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29 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


29 CFR - Labor

29 CFR Part 42 - COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT

29 CFR Part 510 - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO

29 CFR Part 516 - RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS

29 CFR Part 519 - EMPLOYMENT OF FULL-TIME STUDENTS AT SUBMINIMUM WAGES

29 CFR Part 520 - EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES

29 CFR Part 525 - EMPLOYMENT OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES

29 CFR Part 528 - ANNULMENT OR WITHDRAWAL OF CERTIFICATES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENT-LEARNERS, APPRENTICES, LEARNERS, MESSENGERS, HANDICAPPED PERSONS, STUDENT-WORKERS,...IN RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES

29 CFR Part 553 - APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

29 CFR Part 775 - GENERAL

29 CFR Part 776 - INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938

29 CFR Part 778 - OVERTIME COMPENSATION

29 CFR Part 779 - THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES

29 CFR Part 780 - EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT

29 CFR Part 782 - EXEMPTION FROM MAXIMUM HOURS PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS

29 CFR Part 783 - APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN

29 CFR Part 784 - PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS

29 CFR Part 785 - HOURS WORKED

29 CFR Part 786 - MISCELLANEOUS EXEMPTIONS AND EXCLUSIONS FROM COVERAGE

29 CFR Part 788 - FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED

29 CFR Part 789 - GENERAL STATEMENT ON THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 12(a) AND SECTION 15(a)(1) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938, RELATING TO WRITTEN ASSURANCES

29 CFR Part 790 - GENERAL STATEMENT AS TO THE EFFECT OF THE PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938

29 CFR Part 791 - JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938

29 CFR Part 793 - EXEMPTION OF CERTAIN RADIO AND TELEVISION STATION EMPLOYEES FROM OVERTIME PAY REQUIREMENTS UNDER SECTION 13(b)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT

29 CFR Part 794 - PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT

29 CFR Part 1620 - THE EQUAL PAY ACT

29 CFR Part 1621 - PROCEDURES—THE EQUAL PAY ACT

 

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