(a)A subpena requiring the attendance of a witness at a trial or hearing conducted under section
3730 of this title may be served at any place in the United States.
(b)A civil action under section
3730 may not be brought—
(1)more than 6 years after the date on which the violation of section
3729 is committed, or
(2)more than 3 years after the date when facts material to the right of action are known or reasonably should have been known by the official of the United States charged with responsibility to act in the circumstances, but in no event more than 10 years after the date on which the violation is committed,
whichever occurs last.
(c)If the Government elects to intervene and proceed with an action brought under 3730(b), the Government may file its own complaint or amend the complaint of a person who has brought an action under section
3730(b) to clarify or add detail to the claims in which the Government is intervening and to add any additional claims with respect to which the Government contends it is entitled to relief. For statute of limitations purposes, any such Government pleading shall relate back to the filing date of the complaint of the person who originally brought the action, to the extent that the claim of the Government arises out of the conduct, transactions, or occurrences set forth, or attempted to be set forth, in the prior complaint of that person.
(d)In any action brought under section
3730, the United States shall be required to prove all essential elements of the cause of action, including damages, by a preponderance of the evidence.
(e)Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, or the Federal Rules of Evidence, a final judgment rendered in favor of the United States in any criminal proceeding charging fraud or false statements, whether upon a verdict after trial or upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, shall estop the defendant from denying the essential elements of the offense in any action which involves the same transaction as in the criminal proceeding and which is brought under subsection (a) or (b) ofsection
 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “section”.
In subsection (b), the words “A civil action under section
3730 of this title” are substituted for “Every such suit” for clarity.
References in Text
The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (e), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in subsec. (e), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
2009—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 111–21, which directed amendment of section “3731(b)” of this title by adding subsec. (c) and redesignating former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively, was executed by making the amendment to this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
1986—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 99–562added subsecs. (b) to (d) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “A civil action under section
3730 of this title must be brought within 6 years from the date the violation is committed.”
Effective Date of 2009 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 111–21effective May 20, 2009, and applicable to conduct on or after May 20, 2009, except that this section, as amended by Pub. L. 111–21, applicable to cases pending on May 20, 2009, see section 4(f) ofPub. L. 111–21, set out as a note under section
3729 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.