31 U.S. Code § 701 - Definitions

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In this chapter—
(1) “agency” includes the District of Columbia government but does not include the legislative branch or the Supreme Court.
(2) “appropriations” means appropriated amounts and includes, in appropriate context—
(A) funds;
(B) authority to make obligations by contract before appropriations; and
(C) other authority making amounts available for obligation or expenditure.


(Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 887.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
701(1) 31:2(1st–4th pars.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, § 2(1st–5th pars.), 42 Stat. 20; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 36, § 201, 53 Stat. 565; July 31, 1953, ch. 302, § 101(1st proviso in par. under heading “Bureau of the Budget”), 67 Stat. 299.
701(2) 31:2(last par.). June 10, 1921, ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20, § 2(last par.); added Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, § 101, 64 Stat. 832.

In clause (1), “agency” (which is defined for purposes of this title in section 101 to mean a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States) is coextensive with and substituted for the term “department or establishment” which was defined in 31:2 as in part meaning “any executive department, independent commission, board, bureau, office, agency, or other establishment of the Government, including any independent regulatory commission or board”. This definition merely restates and continues, and does not in any way change or expand, the definition in 31:2. Under that definition, entities such as the Tennessee Valley Authority that have been interpreted to be outside the purview of the definition will continue to be outside the purview in the same manner and to the same extent that they were under 31:2. The words “includes the District of Columbia government” are used because of existing law but the inclusion of these words is not to be interpreted as construing the extent to which the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganizational Act (Pub. L. 93–198, 87 Stat. 774) supersedes the provisions codified in this title. The words “of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The text of 31:2 (2d–4th pars.) is omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The text of section 2 (3d par.) of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (ch. 18, 42 Stat. 20), is omitted as obsolete because of section 501 of the revised title.
Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–323, § 1(a),Sept. 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 3539, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 705 of this title, amending sections 731 to 733, 735, and 3521 of this title and section 109 of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–521, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 705, 732, and 3523 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3523 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Government Accountability Office Act of 2008’.”
Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–271, § 1(a),July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 811, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘GAO Human Capital Reform Act of 2004’.”
Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–316, § 1,Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3826, provided that: “This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘General Accounting Office Act of 1996’.”
Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–426, § 1,Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1598, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 703, 732, 751, 752, 755, 771 to 774, 776, and 777 of this title and section 5349 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 755 and 772 of this title] may be cited as the ‘General Accounting Office Personnel Amendments Act of 1988’.”

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

31 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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