33 U.S. Code § 2732 - Terminal and tanker oversight and monitoring

(a) Short title and findings
(1) Short title
This section may be cited as the “Oil Terminal and Oil Tanker Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Act of 1990”.
(2) Findings
The Congress finds that—
(A) the March 24, 1989, grounding and rupture of the fully loaded oil tanker, the EXXON VALDEZ, spilled 11 million gallons of crude oil in Prince William Sound, an environmentally sensitive area;
(B) many people believe that complacency on the part of the industry and government personnel responsible for monitoring the operation of the Valdez terminal and vessel traffic in Prince William Sound was one of the contributing factors to the EXXON VALDEZ oil spill;
(C) one way to combat this complacency is to involve local citizens in the process of preparing, adopting, and revising oil spill contingency plans;
(D) a mechanism should be established which fosters the long-term partnership of industry, government, and local communities in overseeing compliance with environmental concerns in the operation of crude oil terminals;
(E) such a mechanism presently exists at the Sullom Voe terminal in the Shetland Islands and this terminal should serve as a model for others;
(F) because of the effective partnership that has developed at Sullom Voe, Sullom Voe is considered the safest terminal in Europe;
(G) the present system of regulation and oversight of crude oil terminals in the United States has degenerated into a process of continual mistrust and confrontation;
(H) only when local citizens are involved in the process will the trust develop that is necessary to change the present system from confrontation to consensus;
(I) a pilot program patterned after Sullom Voe should be established in Alaska to further refine the concepts and relationships involved; and
(J) similar programs should eventually be established in other major crude oil terminals in the United States because the recent oil spills in Texas, Delaware, and Rhode Island indicate that the safe transportation of crude oil is a national problem.
(b) Demonstration programs
(1) Establishment
There are established 2 Oil Terminal and Oil Tanker Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Demonstration Programs (hereinafter referred to as “Programs”) to be carried out in the State of Alaska.
(2) Advisory function
The function of these Programs shall be advisory only.
(3) Purpose
The Prince William Sound Program shall be responsible for environmental monitoring of the terminal facilities in Prince William Sound and the crude oil tankers operating in Prince William Sound. The Cook Inlet Program shall be responsible for environmental monitoring of the terminal facilities and crude oil tankers operating in Cook Inlet located South of the latitude at Point Possession and North of the latitude at Amatuli Island, including offshore facilities in Cook Inlet.
(4) Suits barred
No program, association, council, committee or other organization created by this section may sue any person or entity, public or private, concerning any matter arising under this section except for the performance of contracts.
(c) Oil Terminal Facilities and Oil Tanker Operations Association
(1) Establishment
There is established an Oil Terminal Facilities and Oil Tanker Operations Association (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Association”) for each of the Programs established under subsection (b) of this section.
(2) Membership
Each Association shall be comprised of 4 individuals as follows:
(A) One individual shall be designated by the owners and operators of the terminal facilities and shall represent those owners and operators.
(B) One individual shall be designated by the owners and operators of the crude oil tankers calling at the terminal facilities and shall represent those owners and operators.
(C) One individual shall be an employee of the State of Alaska, shall be designated by the Governor of the State of Alaska, and shall represent the State government.
(D) One individual shall be an employee of the Federal Government, shall be designated by the President, and shall represent the Federal Government.
(3) Responsibilities
Each Association shall be responsible for reviewing policies relating to the operation and maintenance of the oil terminal facilities and crude oil tankers which affect or may affect the environment in the vicinity of their respective terminals. Each Association shall provide a forum among the owners and operators of the terminal facilities, the owners and operators of crude oil tankers calling at those facilities, the United States, and the State of Alaska to discuss and to make recommendations concerning all permits, plans, and site-specific regulations governing the activities and actions of the terminal facilities which affect or may affect the environment in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and of crude oil tankers calling at those facilities.
(4) Designation of existing organization
The Secretary may designate an existing nonprofit organization as an Association under this subsection if the organization is organized to meet the purposes of this section and consists of at least the individuals listed in paragraph (2).
(d) Regional Citizens’ Advisory Councils
(1) Membership
There is established a Regional Citizens’ Advisory Council (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Council”) for each of the programs established by subsection (b) of this section.
(2) Membership
Each Council shall be composed of voting members and nonvoting members, as follows:
(A) Voting members
Voting members shall be Alaska residents and, except as provided in clause (vii) of this paragraph, shall be appointed by the Governor of the State of Alaska from a list of nominees provided by each of the following interests, with one representative appointed to represent each of the following interests, taking into consideration the need for regional balance on the Council:
(i) Local commercial fishing industry organizations, the members of which depend on the fisheries resources of the waters in the vicinity of the terminal facilities.
(ii) Aquaculture associations in the vicinity of the terminal facilities.
(iii) Alaska Native Corporations and other Alaska Native organizations the members of which reside in the vicinity of the terminal facilities.
(iv) Environmental organizations the members of which reside in the vicinity of the terminal facilities.
(v) Recreational organizations the members of which reside in or use the vicinity of the terminal facilities.
(vi) The Alaska State Chamber of Commerce, to represent the locally based tourist industry.
(vii)
(I) For the Prince William Sound Terminal Facilities Council, one representative selected by each of the following municipalities: Cordova, Whittier, Seward, Valdez, Kodiak, the Kodiak Island Borough, and the Kenai Peninsula Borough.
(II) For the Cook Inlet Terminal Facilities Council, one representative selected by each of the following municipalities: Homer, Seldovia, Anchorage, Kenai, Kodiak, the Kodiak Island Borough, and the Kenai Peninsula Borough.
(B) Nonvoting members
One ex-officio, nonvoting representative shall be designated by, and represent, each of the following:
(i) The Environmental Protection Agency.
(ii) The Coast Guard.
(iii) The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
(iv) The United States Forest Service.
(v) The Bureau of Land Management.
(vi) The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation.
(vii) The Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
(viii) The Alaska Department of Natural Resources.
(ix) The Division of Emergency Services, Alaska Department of Military and Veterans Affairs.
(3) Terms
(A) Duration of Councils
The term of the Councils shall continue throughout the life of the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and so long as oil is transported to or from Cook Inlet.
(B) Three years
The voting members of each Council shall be appointed for a term of 3 years except as provided for in subparagraph (C).
(C) Initial appointments
The terms of the first appointments shall be as follows:
(i) For the appointments by the Governor of the State of Alaska, one-third shall serve for 3 years, one-third shall serve for 2 years, and one-third shall serve for one year.
(ii) For the representatives of municipalities required by subsection (d)(2)(A)(vii) of this section, a drawing of lots among the appointees shall determine that one-third of that group serves for 3 years, one-third serves for 2 years, and the remainder serves for 1 year.
(4) Self-governing
Each Council shall elect its own chairperson, select its own staff, and make policies with regard to its internal operating procedures. After the initial organizational meeting called by the Secretary under subsection (i) of this section, each Council shall be self-governing.
(5) Dual membership and conflicts of interest prohibited
(A) No individual selected as a member of the Council shall serve on the Association.
(B) No individual selected as a voting member of the Council shall be engaged in any activity which might conflict with such individual carrying out his functions as a member thereof.
(6) Duties
Each Council shall—
(A) provide advice and recommendations to the Association on policies, permits, and site-specific regulations relating to the operation and maintenance of terminal facilities and crude oil tankers which affect or may affect the environment in the vicinity of the terminal facilities;
(B) monitor through the committee established under subsection (e) of this section, the environmental impacts of the operation of the terminal facilities and crude oil tankers;
(C) monitor those aspects of terminal facilities’ and crude oil tankers’ operations and maintenance which affect or may affect the environment in the vicinity of the terminal facilities;
(D) review through the committee established under subsection (f) of this section, the adequacy of oil spill prevention and contingency plans for the terminal facilities and the adequacy of oil spill prevention and contingency plans for crude oil tankers, operating in Prince William Sound or in Cook Inlet;
(E) provide advice and recommendations to the Association on port operations, policies and practices;
(F) recommend to the Association—
(i) standards and stipulations for permits and site-specific regulations intended to minimize the impact of the terminal facilities’ and crude oil tankers’ operations in the vicinity of the terminal facilities;
(ii) modifications of terminal facility operations and maintenance intended to minimize the risk and mitigate the impact of terminal facilities, operations in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and to minimize the risk of oil spills;
(iii) modifications of crude oil tanker operations and maintenance in Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet intended to minimize the risk and mitigate the impact of oil spills; and
(iv) modifications to the oil spill prevention and contingency plans for terminal facilities and for crude oil tankers in Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet intended to enhance the ability to prevent and respond to an oil spill; and
(G) create additional committees of the Council as necessary to carry out the above functions, including a scientific and technical advisory committee to the Prince William Sound Council.
(7) No estoppel
No Council shall be held liable under State or Federal law for costs or damages as a result of rendering advice under this section. Nor shall any advice given by a voting member of a Council, or program representative or agent, be grounds for estopping the interests represented by the voting Council members from seeking damages or other appropriate relief.
(8) Scientific work
In carrying out its research, development and monitoring functions, each Council is authorized to conduct its own scientific research and shall review the scientific work undertaken by or on behalf of the terminal operators or crude oil tanker operators as a result of a legal requirement to undertake that work. Each Council shall also review the relevant scientific work undertaken by or on behalf of any government entity relating to the terminal facilities or crude oil tankers. To the extent possible, to avoid unnecessary duplication, each Council shall coordinate its independent scientific work with the scientific work performed by or on behalf of the terminal operators and with the scientific work performed by or on behalf of the operators of the crude oil tankers.
(e) Committee for Terminal and Oil Tanker Operations and Environmental Monitoring
(1) Monitoring Committee
Each Council shall establish a standing Terminal and Oil Tanker Operations and Environmental Monitoring Committee (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Monitoring Committee”) to devise and manage a comprehensive program of monitoring the environmental impacts of the operations of terminal facilities and of crude oil tankers while operating in Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. The membership of the Monitoring Committee shall be made up of members of the Council, citizens, and recognized scientific experts selected by the Council.
(2) Duties
In fulfilling its responsibilities, the Monitoring Committee shall—
(A) advise the Council on a monitoring strategy that will permit early detection of environmental impacts of terminal facility operations and crude oil tanker operations while in Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet;
(B) develop monitoring programs and make recommendations to the Council on the implementation of those programs;
(C) at its discretion, select and contract with universities and other scientific institutions to carry out specific monitoring projects authorized by the Council pursuant to an approved monitoring strategy;
(D) complete any other tasks assigned by the Council; and
(E) provide written reports to the Council which interpret and assess the results of all monitoring programs.
(f) Committee for Oil Spill Prevention, Safety, and Emergency Response
(1) Technical Oil Spill Committee
Each Council shall establish a standing technical committee (hereinafter referred to as “Oil Spill Committee”) to review and assess measures designed to prevent oil spills and the planning and preparedness for responding to, containing, cleaning up, and mitigating impacts of oil spills. The membership of the Oil Spill Committee shall be made up of members of the Council, citizens, and recognized technical experts selected by the Council.
(2) Duties
In fulfilling its responsibilities, the Oil Spill Committee shall—
(A) periodically review the respective oil spill prevention and contingency plans for the terminal facilities and for the crude oil tankers while in Prince William Sound or Cook Inlet, in light of new technological developments and changed circumstances;
(B) monitor periodic drills and testing of the oil spill contingency plans for the terminal facilities and for crude oil tankers while in Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet;
(C) study wind and water currents and other environmental factors in the vicinity of the terminal facilities which may affect the ability to prevent, respond to, contain, and clean up an oil spill;
(D) identify highly sensitive areas which may require specific protective measures in the event of a spill in Prince William Sound or Cook Inlet;
(E) monitor developments in oil spill prevention, containment, response, and cleanup technology;
(F) periodically review port organization, operations, incidents, and the adequacy and maintenance of vessel traffic service systems designed to assure safe transit of crude oil tankers pertinent to terminal operations;
(G) periodically review the standards for tankers bound for, loading at, exiting from, or otherwise using the terminal facilities;
(H) complete any other tasks assigned by the Council; and
(I) provide written reports to the Council outlining its findings and recommendations.
(g) Agency cooperation
On and after the expiration of the 180-day period following August 18, 1990, each Federal department, agency, or other instrumentality shall, with respect to all permits, site-specific regulations, and other matters governing the activities and actions of the terminal facilities which affect or may affect the vicinity of the terminal facilities, consult with the appropriate Council prior to taking substantive action with respect to the permit, site-specific regulation, or other matter. This consultation shall be carried out with a view to enabling the appropriate Association and Council to review the permit, site-specific regulation, or other matters and make appropriate recommendations regarding operations, policy or agency actions. Prior consultation shall not be required if an authorized Federal agency representative reasonably believes that an emergency exists requiring action without delay.
(h) Recommendations of Council
In the event that the Association does not adopt, or significantly modifies before adoption, any recommendation of the Council made pursuant to the authority granted to the Council in subsection (d) of this section, the Association shall provide to the Council, in writing, within 5 days of its decision, notice of its decision and a written statement of reasons for its rejection or significant modification of the recommendation.
(i) Administrative actions
Appointments, designations, and selections of individuals to serve as members of the Associations and Councils under this section shall be submitted to the Secretary prior to the expiration of the 120-day period following August 18, 1990. On or before the expiration of the 180-day period following August 18, 1990, the Secretary shall call an initial meeting of each Association and Council for organizational purposes.
(j) Location and compensation
(1) Location
Each Association and Council established by this section shall be located in the State of Alaska.
(2) Compensation
No member of an Association or Council shall be compensated for the member’s services as a member of the Association or Council, but shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at a rate established by the Association or Council not to exceed the rates authorized for employees of agencies under sections 5702 and 5703 of title 5. However, each Council may enter into contracts to provide compensation and expenses to members of the committees created under subsections (d), (e), and (f) of this section.
(k) Funding
(1) Requirement
Approval of the contingency plans required of owners and operators of the Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound terminal facilities and crude oil tankers while operating in Alaskan waters in commerce with those terminal facilities shall be effective only so long as the respective Association and Council for a facility are funded pursuant to paragraph (2).
(2) Prince William Sound Program
The owners or operators of terminal facilities or crude oil tankers operating in Prince William Sound shall provide, on an annual basis, an aggregate amount of not more than $2,000,000, as determined by the Secretary. Such amount—
(A) shall provide for the establishment and operation on the environmental oversight and monitoring program in Prince William Sound;
(B) shall be adjusted annually by the Anchorage Consumer Price Index; and
(C) may be adjusted periodically upon the mutual consent of the owners or operators of terminal facilities or crude oil tankers operating in Prince William Sound and the Prince William Sound terminal facilities Council.
(3) Cook Inlet Program
The owners or operators of terminal facilities, offshore facilities, or crude oil tankers operating in Cook Inlet shall provide, on an annual basis, an aggregate amount of not more than $1,000,000, as determined by the Secretary. Such amount—
(A) shall provide for the establishment and operation of the environmental oversight and monitoring program in Cook Inlet;
(B) shall be adjusted annually by the Anchorage Consumer Price Index; and
(C) may be adjusted periodically upon the mutual consent of the owners or operators of terminal facilities, offshore facilities, or crude oil tankers operating in Cook Inlet and the Cook Inlet Council.
(l) Reports
(1) Associations and Councils
Prior to the expiration of the 36-month period following August 18, 1990, each Association and Council established by this section shall report to the President and the Congress concerning its activities under this section, together with its recommendations.
(2) GAO
Prior to the expiration of the 36-month period following August 18, 1990, the General Accounting Office shall report to the President and the Congress as to the handling of funds, including donated funds, by the entities carrying out the programs under this section, and the effectiveness of the demonstration programs carried out under this section, together with its recommendations.
(m) Definitions
As used in this section, the term—
(1) “terminal facilities” means—
(A) in the case of the Prince William Sound Program, the entire oil terminal complex located in Valdez, Alaska, consisting of approximately 1,000 acres including all buildings, docks (except docks owned by the City of Valdez if those docks are not used for loading of crude oil), pipes, piping, roads, ponds, tanks, crude oil tankers only while at the terminal dock, tanker escorts owned or operated by the operator of the terminal, vehicles, and other facilities associated with, and necessary for, assisting tanker movement of crude oil into and out of the oil terminal complex; and
(B) in the case of the Cook Inlet Program, the entire oil terminal complex including all buildings, docks, pipes, piping, roads, ponds, tanks, vessels, vehicles, crude oil tankers only while at the terminal dock, tanker escorts owned or operated by the operator of the terminal, emergency spill response vessels owned or operated by the operator of the terminal, and other facilities associated with, and necessary for, assisting tanker movement of crude oil into and out of the oil terminal complex;
(2) “crude oil tanker” means a tanker (as that term is defined under section 2101 of title 46)—
(A) in the case of the Prince William Sound Program, calling at the terminal facilities for the purpose of receiving and transporting oil to refineries, operating north of Middleston Island and bound for or exiting from Prince William Sound; and
(B) in the case of the Cook Inlet Program, calling at the terminal facilities for the purpose of receiving and transporting oil to refineries and operating in Cook Inlet and the Gulf of Alaska north of Amatuli Island, including tankers transiting to Cook Inlet from Prince William Sound;
(3) “vicinity of the terminal facilities” means that geographical area surrounding the environment of terminal facilities which is directly affected or may be directly affected by the operation of the terminal facilities; and
(4) “Secretary” means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.
(n) Savings clause
(1) Regulatory authority
Nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying, repealing, superseding, or preempting any municipal, State or Federal law or regulation, or in any way affecting litigation arising from oil spills or the rights and responsibilities of the United States or the State of Alaska, or municipalities thereof, to preserve and protect the environment through regulation of land, air, and water uses, of safety, and of related development. The monitoring provided for by this section shall be designed to help assure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and shall only extend to activities—
(A) that would affect or have the potential to affect the vicinity of the terminal facilities and the area of crude oil tanker operations included in the Programs; and
(B) are subject to the United States or State of Alaska, or municipality thereof, law, regulation, or other legal requirement.
(2) Recommendations
This subsection is not intended to prevent the Association or Council from recommending to appropriate authorities that existing legal requirements should be modified or that new legal requirements should be adopted.
(o) Alternative voluntary advisory group in lieu of Council
The requirements of subsections (c) through (l) of this section, as such subsections apply respectively to the Prince William Sound Program and the Cook Inlet Program, are deemed to have been satisfied so long as the following conditions are met:
(1) Prince William Sound
With respect to the Prince William Sound Program, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company or any of its owner companies enters into a contract for the duration of the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System with the Alyeska Citizens Advisory Committee in existence on August 18, 1990, or a successor organization, to fund that Committee or organization on an annual basis in the amount provided for by subsection (k)(2)(A) of this section and the President annually certifies that the Committee or organization fosters the general goals and purposes of this section and is broadly representative of the communities and interests in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and Prince William Sound.
(2) Cook Inlet
With respect to the Cook Inlet Program, the terminal facilities, offshore facilities, or crude oil tanker owners and operators enter into a contract with a voluntary advisory organization to fund that organization on an annual basis and the President annually certifies that the organization fosters the general goals and purposes of this section and is broadly representative of the communities and interests in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and Cook Inlet.

Source

(Pub. L. 101–380, title V, § 5002,Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 544; Pub. L. 109–241, title IX, § 902(l)(2),July 11, 2006, 120 Stat. 568.)
Amendments

2006—Subsec. (m)(4). Pub. L. 109–241substituted “of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.” for “of Transportation.”
Change of Name

General Accounting Office redesignated Government Accountability Office by section 8 ofPub. L. 108–271, set out as a note under section 702 of Title 31, Money and Finance.
Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsecs. (c)(2)(D) and (o) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating by section 8(f), (g) of Ex. Ord. No. 12777, Oct. 18, 1991, 56 F.R. 54769, as amended, set out as a note under section 1321 of this title.
Prince William Sound Regional Citizens Advisory Committee

Certification of President of the United States, Mar. 21, 1991, 56 F.R. 12439, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 5002(o)(1) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–380, 104 Stat. 552) [33 U.S.C. 2732 (o)(1)], I hereby certify for the year 1991 the following:
(1) that the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens Advisory Committee fosters the general goals and purposes of section 5002 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for the year 1991; and
(2) that the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens Advisory Committee is broadly representative of the communities and interests in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and Prince William Sound.
This certification shall be published in the Federal Register.
George Bush.
Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council

Certification of President of the United States, Aug. 6, 1991, 56 F.R. 37819, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 5002(o)(2) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 [33 U.S.C. 2732 (o)(2)], I hereby certify for the year 1991 the following:
(1) that the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council has met the general goals and purposes of section 5002 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 for the year 1991; and
(2) that the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council is broadly representative of the communities and interests in the vicinity of the terminal facilities and offshore facilities in Cook Inlet.
This certification shall be published in the Federal Register.
George Bush.

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

 

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