(Added Pub. L. 96–517, § 6(a),Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3020; amended Pub. L. 98–620, title V, § 501(3)–(8), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3364–3366; Pub. L. 102–204, § 10,Dec. 10, 1991, 105 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(9) [title IV, § 4732(a)(12)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–583; Pub. L. 106–404, § 6(1),Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1745; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title III, § 13206(a)(13),Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1905; Pub. L. 111–8, div. G, title I, § 1301(h),Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 829; Pub. L. 112–29, §§ 3(g)(7),
20(i)(2),Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 288, 327, 334.)
References in Text
This Act, referred to in subsec. (d), probably means Pub. L. 96–517
, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3015
, which enacted sections
of this title, amended sections
of this title, section
, Commerce and Trade, sections
, Copyrights, and sections
5908 and former section
, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections
of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
2011—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 112–29
, § 20(i)(2)(A), substituted “section
” for “the section
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–29
, § 3(g)(7)(A), substituted “the 1-year period referred to in section
would end before the end of that 2-year period” for “publication, on sale, or public use, has initiated the one year statutory period in which valid patent protection can still be obtained in the United States” and “before the end of that 1-year” for “prior to the end of the statutory”.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 112–29
, § 3(g)(7)(B), substituted “the expiration of the 1-year period referred to in section
” for “any statutory bar date that may occur under this title due to publication, on sale, or public use”.
Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 112–29
, § 20(i)(2)(B), substituted “except where it is determined to be infeasible following a reasonable inquiry, a preference in the licensing of subject inventions shall be given to small business firms; and” for “except where it proves infeasible after a reasonable inquiry, in the licensing of subject inventions shall be given to small business firms; and”.
Subsec. (c)(7)(E)(i). Pub. L. 112–29
, § 13(a), substituted “15 percent” for “75 percent”, “85 percent” for “25 percent”, and “described above in this clause;” for “as described above in this clause (D);”.
2009—Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 111–8
redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: “At least once every 5 years, the Comptroller General shall transmit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and House of Representatives on the manner in which this chapter is being implemented by the agencies and on such other aspects of Government patent policies and practices with respect to federally funded inventions as the Comptroller General believes appropriate.”
2002—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–273
, § 13206(a)(13)(A), substituted “section
” for “last paragraph of section
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 107–273
, § 13206(a)(13)(B)(i), substituted “additional rights,” for “additional rights;”.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 107–273
, § 13206(a)(13)(B)(ii), struck out “of the United States Code” after “section
2000—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–404
amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “In any case when a Federal employee is a coinventor of any invention made under a funding agreement with a nonprofit organization or small business firm, the Federal agency employing such coinventor is authorized to transfer or assign whatever rights it may acquire in the subject invention from its employee to the contractor subject to the conditions set forth in this chapter.”
1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–113
, in first sentence, substituted “(iv)” for “iv)” and struck out a second period at end.
1991—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–204
substituted “every 5 years” for “each year”.
1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(3), substituted “when the contractor is not located in the United States or does not have a place of business located in the United States or is subject to the control of a foreign government” for “when the funding agreement is for the operation of a Government-owned research or production facility”, struck out “or” before “(ii)”, which was executed by striking out “or” before “(iii)” as the probable intent of Congress, and added cl. (iv).
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(4), gave to the Department of Commerce oversight of agency use of the exceptions to small business or nonprofit organization invention ownership.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(4), substituted provisions authorizing the Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy to issue regulations describing situations in which agencies may not exercise the authorities of clauses (i) or (ii) of subsec. (a), whenever the Administrator has determined that one or more agencies are utilizing such authority in violation of this chapter for provisions which gave to the Comptroller General oversight of agency actions under this chapter.
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(4A), added par. (4).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(5), substituted provisions requiring disclosure of each invention within a reasonable time after it becomes known to contractor personnel responsible for the administration of patent matters for provision requiring disclosure of each invention within a reasonable time after it is made.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(5), substituted provisions requiring the contractor to make a written election within two years after disclosure to the Federal agency (or such additional time as may be approved by the Federal agency) whether the contractor will retain title to a subject invention for provision requiring election to retain title within a reasonable time after disclosure, and inserted provision authorizing the Federal agency to shorten the period for election under certain circumstances.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(5), substituted provisions requiring a contractor electing rights in a subject invention to file a patent application prior to any statutory bar date that may occur under this title due to publication, on sale, or public use, and thereafter to file corresponding patent applications in other countries in which it wishes to retain title within reasonable times for provisions requiring the contractor to file patent applications within a reasonable time.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(5), substituted provision that the funding agreement may provide for such additional rights, including the right to assign or have assigned foreign patent rights in the subject invention, as are determined by the agency as necessary for meeting the obligations of the United States under any treaty, international agreement, arrangement of cooperation, memorandum of understanding, or similar arrangement, including any military agreement relating to weapons development and production for provision that the agency could, if provided in the funding agreement, have additional rights to sublicense any foreign government or international organization pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(6), substituted “as well as any information on utilization or efforts at obtaining utilization obtained as part of a proceeding under section
of this chapter shall be treated” for “may be treated”.
Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(7), struck out provision which made an exception for organizations which were not themselves engaged in or did not hold a substantial interest in other organizations engaged in the manufacture or sales of products or the use of processes that might utilize the invention or be in competition with embodiments of the invention.
Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(8), redesignated cl. (C) as (B). Former cl. (B), relating to a prohibition against the granting of exclusive licenses under United States Patents or Patent Applications in a subject invention by the contractor to persons other than small business firms for periods in excess of certain specified periods and relating to commercial sales, was struck out.
Subsec. (c)(7)(C). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(8), added cl. (C). Former cl. (C) redesignated (B).
Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(8), added cl. (D). Former cl. (D) redesignated (E).
Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 98–620
, § 501(8), redesignated former cl. (D) as (E) and inserted provisions placing a limit on the amount of royalties that the contract operators of Government-owned laboratories are entitled to retain after paying patent administrative expenses and a share of the royalties to inventors, requiring payment of amounts in excess of such limits to the United States Treasury, and requiring that, to the extent it provides the most effective technology transfer, the licensing of subject inventions shall be administered by contractor employees on location at the facility.
Effective Date of 2011 Amendment
Amendment by section 3(g)(7) ofPub. L. 112–29
effective upon the expiration of the 18-month period beginning on Sept. 16, 2011, and applicable to certain applications for patent and any patents issuing thereon, see section 3(n) ofPub. L. 112–29
, set out as an Effective Date of 2011 Amendment; Savings Provisions note under section
of this title.
Pub. L. 112–29
, § 13(b),Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 327
, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 16, 2011] and shall apply to any patent issued before, on, or after that date.”
Amendment by section 20(i)(2) ofPub. L. 112–29
effective upon the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on Sept. 16, 2011, and applicable to proceedings commenced on or after that effective date, see section 20(l) ofPub. L. 112–29
, set out as a note under section
of this title.
Effective Date of 1999 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 106–113
effective 4 months after Nov. 29, 1999, see section
1000(a)(9) [title IV, § 4731] of Pub. L. 106–113
, set out as a note under section
of this title.