37 U.S. Code § 559 - Benefits for members held as captives

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(a) In this section:
(1) The term “captive status” means a missing status of a member of the uniformed services which, as determined by the President, arises because of a hostile action and is a result of membership in the uniformed services, but does not include a period of captivity of a member as a prisoner of war if Congress provides to such member, in an Act enacted after August 27, 1986, monetary payment in respect of such period of captivity.
(2) The term “former captive” means a person who, as a member of the uniformed services, was held in a captive status.
(b)
(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish a savings fund to which the Secretary concerned may allot all or any portion of the pay and allowances of any member of the uniformed services who is in a captive status to the extent that such pay and allowances are not subject to an allotment under section 553 of this title or any other provision of law.
(2) Amounts so allotted shall bear interest at a rate which, for any calendar quarter, shall be equal to the average rate paid on United States Treasury bills with three-month maturities issued during the preceding calendar quarter. Such interest shall be computed quarterly.
(3) Amounts in the savings fund credited to a member shall be considered as pay and allowances for purposes of section 553 (c) of this title and shall otherwise be subject to withdrawal under procedures which the Secretary of the Treasury shall establish.
(4) Any interest accruing under this subsection on—
(A) any amount for which a member is indebted to the United States under section 552 (c) of this title shall be deemed to be part of the amount due under such section; and
(B) any amount referred to in section 556 (f) of this title shall be deemed to be part of such amount for purposes of such section.
(5) An allotment under this subsection may be made without regard to section 553 (c) of this title.
(c)
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the President shall make a cash payment to any person who is a former captive. Such payment shall be made before the end of the one-year period beginning on the date on which the captive status of such person terminates.
(2) Except as provided in section 802 of the Victims of Terrorism Compensation Act (5 U.S.C. 5569 note), the amount of such payment shall be determined by the President under the provisions of section 5569 (d)(2) of title 5.
(3)
(A) The President—
(i) may defer such payment in the case of any former captive who during such one-year period is charged with an offense described in clause (ii), until final disposition of such charge; and
(ii) may deny such payment in the case of any former captive who is convicted of a captivity-related offense—
(I) referred to in subsection (b) or (c) ofsection 8312 of title 5; or
(II) under chapter 47 of title 10 (the Uniform Code of Military Justice) that is punishable by dishonorable discharge, dismissal, or confinement for one year or more.
(B) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), a captivity-related offense is an offense that is—
(i) committed by a person while the person is in a captive status; and
(ii) related to the captive status of the person.
(4) A payment under this subsection is in addition to any other amount provided by law.
(5) Any amount due a person under this subsection shall, after the death of such person, be deemed to be pay and allowances for the purposes of this chapter.
(6) Any payment made under paragraph (1) that is later denied under paragraph (3)(A)(ii) is a claim of the United States Government for purposes of section 3711 of title 31.
(d) A determination by the President under subsection (a)(1) or (c) is final and is not subject to judicial review.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 99–399, title VIII, § 806(a)(1),Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 884; amended Pub. L. 100–26, § 8(e)(11),Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 287; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, § 1484(d)(4), (e)(2),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1717; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, § 702(b)(1)–(4), (c), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, § 1054(a)(6), (c)(2),Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2502.)
References in Text

Section 802 of the Victims of Terrorism Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is section 802 ofPub. L. 99–399, which is set out as a note under section 5569 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–484, § 1054(c)(2), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(4). See 1991 Amendment note below.
Pub. L. 102–484, § 1054(a)(6), made amendment identical to amendment by Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(4). See 1991 Amendment note below.
1991—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(2), struck out “of this subsection” after “paragraph (3)”.
Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(4), as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, § 1054(c)(2), struck out “of this subparagraph” after “clause (ii)”.
Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(3), struck out “of this paragraph” after “subparagraph (A)”.
Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(2), struck out “of this subsection” after “paragraph (1)” and after “paragraph (3)(A)(ii)”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–25, § 702(b)(1), struck out “of this section” after “(c)”.
1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, § 1484(d)(4), substituted “August 27, 1986” for “the date of the enactment of the Victims of Terrorism Compensation Act”.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, § 1484(e)(2), inserted “(5 U.S.C. 5569 note)” after “Terrorism Compensation Act”.
1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–26substituted “In this section:” for “In this section—”, inserted “The term” at beginning of pars. (1) and (2), and substituted period for “; and” at end of par. (1).
Effective Date; Payments; Interest

Pub. L. 99–399, title VIII, § 806(a)(3),Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 885, provided that:
“(A)(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), section 559 of title 37, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), shall apply to any person whose captive status begins after January 21, 1981.
“(ii)(I) Subsection (c) of such section shall apply to any person whose captive status begins on or after November 4, 1979.
“(II) In the case of any person whose status as a captive terminated before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 27, 1986], the President shall make a payment under paragraph (1) of such subsection before the end of the one-year period beginning on such date.
“(B) Amounts may be allotted to a savings fund established under such section from pay and allowances for any pay period ending after January 21, 1981, and before the establishment of such fund.
“(C) Interest on amounts so allotted with respect to any such pay period shall be calculated as if the allotment had occurred at the end of such pay period.”
Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense, see section 3 of Ex. Ord. No. 12598, June 17, 1987, 52 F.R. 23421, set out as a note under section 5569 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
Recalculation of Previous Payments

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VI, § 675(b),Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 187, provided that: “In the case of any payment of back pay made to or for a person under section 667 of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 [Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title VI, § 667], set out below] before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of the Navy shall—
“(1) recalculate the amount of back pay to which the person is entitled by reason of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title VI, § 667], set out below]; and
“(2) if the amount of back pay, as so recalculated, exceeds the amount of back pay so paid, pay the person, or the surviving spouse of the person, an amount equal to the excess.”
Back Pay for Members of the Navy and Marine Corps Selected for Promotion While Interned as Prisoners of War During World War II

Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title VI, § 667], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–169, as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VI, § 675(a),Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 186, provided that:
“(a) Entitlement of Former Prisoners of War.—Upon receipt of a claim made in accordance with this section, the Secretary of the Navy shall pay, from any appropriation currently available to the Secretary, back pay to any person who, by reason of being interned as a prisoner of war while serving as a member of the Navy or the Marine Corps during World War II, was not available to accept a promotion for which the person had been selected.
“(b) Payment to Surviving Spouse of Deceased Former Member.—In the case of a person described in subsection (a) who is deceased, the back pay for that person under this section shall be paid to the living surviving spouse of that person, if any. If there is no living surviving spouse, no claim may be paid under this section with respect to that person.
“(c) Amount of Back Pay.—(1) The amount of back pay payable to or for a person described in subsection (a) is the amount equal to the difference between—
“(A) the total amount of basic pay that would have been paid to that person for service in the Navy or the Marine Corps for the back-pay computation period if the person had been promoted to the grade to which selected to be promoted; and
“(B) the total amount of basic pay that was actually paid to or for that person for such service for the back-pay computation period.
“(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the back-pay computation period for a person covered by subsection (a) is the period—
“(A) beginning on the date (as determined by the Secretary of the Navy) as of when that person’s promotion would have been effective for pay purposes but for the person’s internment as a prisoner of war; and
“(B) ending on the earliest of—
“(i) the date of the person’s discharge or release from active duty;
“(ii) the date on which the person’s promotion to that grade in fact became effective for pay purposes; and
“(iii) the end of World War II.
“(3) The amount determined for a person under paragraph (1) shall be increased to reflect increases in cost of living since the basic pay referred to in paragraph (1)(B) was paid to or for that person, calculated on the basis of the Consumer Price Index (all items—United States city average) published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
“(d) Time Limitations.—(1) To be eligible for a payment under this section, a claimant must file a claim for such payment with the Secretary of the Navy within two years after the effective date of the regulations prescribed to carry out this section.
“(2) Not later than 18 months after receiving a claim for payment under this section, the Secretary shall determine the eligibility of the claimant for payment of the claim. Subject to subsection (f), if the Secretary determines that the claimant is eligible for the payment, the Secretary shall promptly pay the claim.
“(e) Regulations.—Not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], the Secretary of the Navy shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. Such regulations shall include procedures by which persons may submit claims for payment under this section.
“(f) Limitation on Disbursement.—(1) Notwithstanding any power of attorney, assignment of interest, contract, or other agreement, the actual disbursement of a payment of back pay under this section may be made only to a person who is eligible for the payment under subsection (a) or (b).
“(2) In the case of a claim approved for payment but not disbursed as a result of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall hold the funds in trust for the person in an interest bearing account until such time as the person makes an election under such paragraph.
“(g) Attorney Fees.—Notwithstanding any contract, the representative of a person may not receive, for services rendered in connection with the claim of, or with respect to, a person under this section, more than 10 percent of the amount of a payment made under this section on that claim.
“(h) Outreach.—The Secretary of the Navy shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the benefits and eligibility for benefits under this section are widely publicized by means designed to provide actual notice of the availability of the benefits in a timely manner to the maximum number of eligible persons practicable.
“(i) Definition.—In this section, the term ‘World War II’ has the meaning given that term in section 101 (8) of title 38, United States Code.”
Payment to Individuals Held in Captive Status Between November 4, 1979, and January 21, 1981

For payment for individuals in the uniformed services referred to in subsec. (c) of this section held in captive status between Nov. 4, 1979, and Jan. 21, 1981, see section 802 ofPub. L. 99–399, set out as a note under section 5569 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

 

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