38 U.S. Code § 4311 - Discrimination against persons who serve in the uniformed services and acts of reprisal prohibited

prev | next
(a) A person who is a member of, applies to be a member of, performs, has performed, applies to perform, or has an obligation to perform service in a uniformed service shall not be denied initial employment, reemployment, retention in employment, promotion, or any benefit of employment by an employer on the basis of that membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation.
(b) An employer may not discriminate in employment against or take any adverse employment action against any person because such person
(1) has taken an action to enforce a protection afforded any person under this chapter,
(2) has testified or otherwise made a statement in or in connection with any proceeding under this chapter,
(3) has assisted or otherwise participated in an investigation under this chapter, or
(4) has exercised a right provided for in this chapter. The prohibition in this subsection shall apply with respect to a person regardless of whether that person has performed service in the uniformed services.
(c) An employer shall be considered to have engaged in actions prohibited—
(1) under subsection (a), if the person’s membership, application for membership, service, application for service, or obligation for service in the uniformed services is a motivating factor in the employer’s action, unless the employer can prove that the action would have been taken in the absence of such membership, application for membership, service, application for service, or obligation for service; or
(2) under subsection (b), if the person’s
(A) action to enforce a protection afforded any person under this chapter,
(B) testimony or making of a statement in or in connection with any proceeding under this chapter,
(C) assistance or other participation in an investigation under this chapter, or
(D) exercise of a right provided for in this chapter, is a motivating factor in the employer’s action, unless the employer can prove that the action would have been taken in the absence of such person’s enforcement action, testimony, statement, assistance, participation, or exercise of a right.
(d) The prohibitions in subsections (a) and (b) shall apply to any position of employment, including a position that is described in section 4312 (d)(1)(C) of this title.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 103–353, § 2(a),Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3153; amended Pub. L. 104–275, title III, § 311(3),Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3334.)
Prior Provisions

A prior section 4311 was renumbered section 7611 of this title.
Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–275added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “An employer shall be considered to have denied a person initial employment, reemployment, retention in employment, promotion, or a benefit of employment in violation of this section if the person’s membership, application for membership, service, application for service, or obligation for service in the uniformed services is a motivating factor in the employer’s action, unless the employer can prove that the action would have been taken in the absence of such membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation.”
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 104–275added subsecs. (c) and (d) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows:
“(c)(1) An employer may not discriminate in employment against or take any adverse employment action against any person because such person has taken an action to enforce a protection afforded any person under this chapter, has testified or otherwise made a statement in or in connection with any proceeding under this chapter, has assisted or otherwise participated in an investigation under this chapter, or has exercised a right provided for in this chapter.
“(2) The prohibition in paragraph (1) shall apply with respect to a person regardless of whether that person has performed service in the uniformed services and shall apply to any position of employment, including a position that is described in section 4312 (d)(1)(C).”
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–275effective Oct. 13, 1994, see section 313 ofPub. L. 104–275, set out as a note under section 4301 of this title.
Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 13, 1994, except as otherwise provided, see section 8 ofPub. L. 103–353, set out as a note under section 4301 of this title.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

38 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.