42 U.S. Code § 11111 - Professional review

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(a) In general
(1) Limitation on damages for professional review actions
If a professional review action (as defined in section 11151 (9) of this title) of a professional review body meets all the standards specified in section 11112 (a) of this title, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section—
(A) the professional review body,
(B) any person acting as a member or staff to the body,
(C) any person under a contract or other formal agreement with the body, and
(D) any person who participates with or assists the body with respect to the action,
shall not be liable in damages under any law of the United States or of any State (or political subdivision thereof) with respect to the action. The preceding sentence shall not apply to damages under any law of the United States or any State relating to the civil rights of any person or persons, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000e, et seq. and the Civil Rights Acts, 42 U.S.C. 1981, et seq. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the United States or any Attorney General of a State from bringing an action, including an action under section 15c of title 15, where such an action is otherwise authorized.
(2) Protection for those providing information to professional review bodies
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person (whether as a witness or otherwise) providing information to a professional review body regarding the competence or professional conduct of a physician shall be held, by reason of having provided such information, to be liable in damages under any law of the United States or of any State (or political subdivision thereof) unless such information is false and the person providing it knew that such information was false.
(b) Exception
If the Secretary has reason to believe that a health care entity has failed to report information in accordance with section 11133 (a) of this title, the Secretary shall conduct an investigation. If, after providing notice of noncompliance, an opportunity to correct the noncompliance, and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary determines that a health care entity has failed substantially to report information in accordance with section 11133 (a) of this title, the Secretary shall publish the name of the entity in the Federal Register. The protections of subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not apply to an entity the name of which is published in the Federal Register under the previous sentence with respect to professional review actions of the entity commenced during the 3-year period beginning 30 days after the date of publication of the name.
(c) Treatment under State laws
(1) Professional review actions taken on or after October 14, 1989
Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsection (a) of this section shall apply to State laws in a State only for professional review actions commenced on or after October 14, 1989.
(2) Exceptions
(A) State early opt-in
Subsection (a) of this section shall apply to State laws in a State for actions commenced before October 14, 1989, if the State by legislation elects such treatment.
(B) Effective date of election
An election under State law is not effective, for purposes of, [1] for actions commenced before the effective date of the State law, which may not be earlier than the date of the enactment of that law.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “for purposes of subparagraph (A),”.

Source

(Pub. L. 99–660, title IV, § 411,Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3784; Pub. L. 100–177, title IV, § 402(c), as added Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, § 6103(e)(6)(A),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2208.)
References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapters II to IX (§ 2000a et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. Title VII of this Act relates to equal employment opportunities, and is classified generally to subchapter VI (§ 2000e et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.
The Civil Rights Acts, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), are classified generally to chapter 21 (§ 1981 et seq.) of this title.
Amendments

1989—Subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 101–239added Pub. L. 100–177, § 402(c), see 1987 Amendment note below.
1987—Subsec. (c)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 100–177, § 402(c), as added by Pub. L. 101–239, redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), struck out “subparagraphs (A) and (B)” after “for purposes of”, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to State laws in a State for actions commenced on or after October 14, 1989, if the State by legislation elects such treatment.”
Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–177effective Nov. 14, 1986, see section 402(d) ofPub. L. 100–177, as renumbered and amended, set out as a note under section 11137 of this title.
Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–660, title IV, § 416,Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3788, provided that: “This part [part A (§§ 411–416) of title IV of Pub. L. 99–660, enacting this subchapter] shall apply to professional review actions commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986].”

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