42 U.S. Code § 12143 - Paratransit as a complement to fixed route service

(a) General rule
It shall be considered discrimination for purposes of section 12132 of this title and section 794 of title 29 for a public entity which operates a fixed route system (other than a system which provides solely commuter bus service) to fail to provide with respect to the operations of its fixed route system, in accordance with this section, paratransit and other special transportation services to individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs, that are sufficient to provide to such individuals a level of service
(1) which is comparable to the level of designated public transportation services provided to individuals without disabilities using such system; or
(2) in the case of response time, which is comparable, to the extent practicable, to the level of designated public transportation services provided to individuals without disabilities using such system.
(b) Issuance of regulations
Not later than 1 year after July 26, 1990, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to carry out this section.
(c) Required contents of regulations
(1) Eligible recipients of service
The regulations issued under this section shall require each public entity which operates a fixed route system to provide the paratransit and other special transportation services required under this section—
(A)
(i) to any individual with a disability who is unable, as a result of a physical or mental impairment (including a vision impairment) and without the assistance of another individual (except an operator of a wheelchair lift or other boarding assistance device), to board, ride, or disembark from any vehicle on the system which is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities;
(ii) to any individual with a disability who needs the assistance of a wheelchair lift or other boarding assistance device (and is able with such assistance) to board, ride, and disembark from any vehicle which is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities if the individual wants to travel on a route on the system during the hours of operation of the system at a time (or within a reasonable period of such time) when such a vehicle is not being used to provide designated public transportation on the route; and
(iii) to any individual with a disability who has a specific impairment-related condition which prevents such individual from traveling to a boarding location or from a disembarking location on such system;
(B) to one other individual accompanying the individual with the disability; and
(C) to other individuals, in addition to the one individual described in subparagraph (B), accompanying the individual with a disability provided that space for these additional individuals is available on the paratransit vehicle carrying the individual with a disability and that the transportation of such additional individuals will not result in a denial of service to individuals with disabilities.
For purposes of clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A), boarding or disembarking from a vehicle does not include travel to the boarding location or from the disembarking location.
(2) Service area
The regulations issued under this section shall require the provision of paratransit and special transportation services required under this section in the service area of each public entity which operates a fixed route system, other than any portion of the service area in which the public entity solely provides commuter bus service.
(3) Service criteria
Subject to paragraphs (1) and (2), the regulations issued under this section shall establish minimum service criteria for determining the level of services to be required under this section.
(4) Undue financial burden limitation
The regulations issued under this section shall provide that, if the public entity is able to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the provision of paratransit and other special transportation services otherwise required under this section would impose an undue financial burden on the public entity, the public entity, notwithstanding any other provision of this section (other than paragraph (5)), shall only be required to provide such services to the extent that providing such services would not impose such a burden.
(5) Additional services
The regulations issued under this section shall establish circumstances under which the Secretary may require a public entity to provide, notwithstanding paragraph (4), paratransit and other special transportation services under this section beyond the level of paratransit and other special transportation services which would otherwise be required under paragraph (4).
(6) Public participation
The regulations issued under this section shall require that each public entity which operates a fixed route system hold a public hearing, provide an opportunity for public comment, and consult with individuals with disabilities in preparing its plan under paragraph (7).
(7) Plans
The regulations issued under this section shall require that each public entity which operates a fixed route system—
(A) within 18 months after July 26, 1990, submit to the Secretary, and commence implementation of, a plan for providing paratransit and other special transportation services which meets the requirements of this section; and
(B) on an annual basis thereafter, submit to the Secretary, and commence implementation of, a plan for providing such services.
(8) Provision of services by others
The regulations issued under this section shall—
(A) require that a public entity submitting a plan to the Secretary under this section identify in the plan any person or other public entity which is providing a paratransit or other special transportation service for individuals with disabilities in the service area to which the plan applies; and
(B) provide that the public entity submitting the plan does not have to provide under the plan such service for individuals with disabilities.
(9) Other provisions
The regulations issued under this section shall include such other provisions and requirements as the Secretary determines are necessary to carry out the objectives of this section.
(d) Review of plan
(1) General rule
The Secretary shall review a plan submitted under this section for the purpose of determining whether or not such plan meets the requirements of this section, including the regulations issued under this section.
(2) Disapproval
If the Secretary determines that a plan reviewed under this subsection fails to meet the requirements of this section, the Secretary shall disapprove the plan and notify the public entity which submitted the plan of such disapproval and the reasons therefor.
(3) Modification of disapproved plan
Not later than 90 days after the date of disapproval of a plan under this subsection, the public entity which submitted the plan shall modify the plan to meet the requirements of this section and shall submit to the Secretary, and commence implementation of, such modified plan.
(e) “Discrimination” defined
As used in subsection (a) of this section, the term “discrimination” includes—
(1) a failure of a public entity to which the regulations issued under this section apply to submit, or commence implementation of, a plan in accordance with subsections (c)(6) and (c)(7) of this section;
(2) a failure of such entity to submit, or commence implementation of, a modified plan in accordance with subsection (d)(3) of this section;
(3) submission to the Secretary of a modified plan under subsection (d)(3) of this section which does not meet the requirements of this section; or
(4) a failure of such entity to provide paratransit or other special transportation services in accordance with the plan or modified plan the public entity submitted to the Secretary under this section.
(f) Statutory construction
Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing a public entity—
(1) from providing paratransit or other special transportation services at a level which is greater than the level of such services which are required by this section,
(2) from providing paratransit or other special transportation services in addition to those paratransit and special transportation services required by this section, or
(3) from providing such services to individuals in addition to those individuals to whom such services are required to be provided by this section.

Source

(Pub. L. 101–336, title II, § 223,July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 340.)
Effective Date

Subsec. (a) of this section effective 18 months after July 26, 1990, and subsecs. (b) to (f) of this section effective July 26, 1990, see section 231 ofPub. L. 101–336, set out as a note under section 12141 of this title.

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

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49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 37 - TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA)

49 CFR Part 38 - AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES

49 CFR Part 39 - TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS

 

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