42 U.S. Code § 13021 - Findings and purpose

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(a) Findings
The Congress finds that—
(1) a large number of juvenile and family courts are inundated with increasing numbers of cases due to increased reports of abuse and neglect, increasing drug-related maltreatment, and insufficient court resources;
(2) the amendments made to the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] by the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 make substantial demands on the courts handling abuse and neglect cases, but provide no assistance to the courts to meet those demands;
(3) the Adoption  [1] and Child Welfare Act of 1980 requires courts to—
(A) determine whether the agency made reasonable efforts to prevent foster care placement;
(B) approve voluntary nonjudicial placement; and
(C) provide procedural safeguards for parents when their parent-child relationship is affected;
(4) social welfare agencies press the courts to meet such requirements, yet scarce resources often dictate that courts comply pro forma without undertaking the meaningful judicial inquiry contemplated by Congress in the Adoption  [1] and Child Welfare Act of 1980;
(5) compliance with the Adoption  [1] and Child Welfare Act of 1980 and overall improvements in the judicial response to abuse and neglect cases can best come about through action by top level court administrators and judges with administrative functions who understand the unique aspects of decisions required in child abuse and neglect cases; and
(6) the Adoption  [1] and Child Welfare Act of 1980 provides financial incentives to train welfare agency staff to meet the requirements, but provides no resources to train judges.
(b) Purpose
The purpose of this subchapter is to provide expanded technical assistance and training to judicial personnel and attorneys, particularly personnel and practitioners in juvenile and family courts, to improve the judicial system’s handling of child abuse and neglect cases with specific emphasis on the role of the courts in addressing reasonable efforts that can safely avoid unnecessary and unnecessarily prolonged foster care placement.

[1]  So in original. Probably should be “Adoption Assistance”.


(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, § 221,Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4796; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, § 40156(b)(2),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1923.)
References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§ 301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.
The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 96–272, June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 500, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendments note set out under section 1305 of this title and Tables.

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322made technical amendment to reference to this subchapter to correct reference to corresponding provision of original act.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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