(A)any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;
(B)any organic byproduct of agriculture (including wastes from food production and processing) that can be converted into energy; or
(C)any waste material that can be converted to energy, is segregated from other waste materials, and is derived from—
(i)any of the following forest-related resources: mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or otherwise nonmerchantable material; or
(ii)wood waste materials, including waste pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction wood wastes (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood wastes), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings, but not including municipal solid waste, gas derived from the biodegradation of municipal solid waste, or paper that is commonly recycled.
(2) Lignocellulosic feedstock
The term “lignocellulosic feedstock” means any portion of a plant or coproduct from conversion, including crops, trees, forest residues, and agricultural residues not specifically grown for food, including from barley grain, grapeseed, rice bran, rice hulls, rice straw, soybean matter, and sugarcane bagasse.
The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for bioenergy, including—
(1)biopower energy systems;
(4)integrated biorefineries that may produce biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts;
(5)cross-cutting research and development in feedstocks; and
(c) Biofuels and bioproducts
The goals of the biofuels and bioproducts programs shall be to develop, in partnership with industry and institutions of higher education—
(1)advanced biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies capable of making fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks that are price-competitive with gasoline or diesel in either internal combustion engines or fuel cell-powered vehicles;
(2)advanced biotechnology processes capable of making biofuels and bioproducts with emphasis on development of biorefinery technologies using enzyme-based processing systems;
(3)advanced biotechnology processes capable of increasing energy production from lignocellulosic feedstocks, with emphasis on reducing the dependence of industry on fossil fuels in manufacturing facilities; and
(4)other advanced processes that will enable the development of cost-effective bioproducts, including biofuels.
(d) Integrated biorefinery demonstration projects
(1) In general
The Secretary shall carry out a program to demonstrate the commercial application of integrated biorefineries. The Secretary shall ensure geographical distribution of biorefinery demonstrations under this subsection. The Secretary shall not provide more than $100,000,000 under this subsection for any single biorefinery demonstration. In making awards under this subsection, the Secretary shall encourage—
(A)the demonstration of a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks;
(B)the commercial application of biomass technologies for a variety of uses, including—
(i)liquid transportation fuels;
(ii)high-value biobased chemicals;
(iii)substitutes for petroleum-based feedstocks and products; and
(iv)energy in the form of electricity or useful heat; and
(C)the demonstration of the collection and treatment of a variety of biomass feedstocks.
Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall solicit proposals for demonstration of advanced biorefineries. The Secretary shall select only proposals that—
(A)demonstrate that the project will be able to operate profitably without direct Federal subsidy after initial construction costs are paid; and
(B)enable the biorefinery to be easily replicated.
(e) University biodiesel program
The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program to determine the feasibility of the operation of diesel electric power generators, using biodiesel fuels with ratings as high as B100, at electric generation facilities owned by institutions of higher education. The program shall examine—
(1)heat rates of diesel fuels with large quantities of cellulosic content;
(2)the reliability of operation of various fuel blends;
(3)performance in cold or freezing weather;
(4)stability of fuel after extended storage; and
(5)other criteria, as determined by the Secretary.
(g) 1 Biorefinery energy efficiency
The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption in the operation of biorefinery facilities.
(h) Retrofit technologies for the development of ethanol from cellulosic materials
The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on technologies and processes to enable biorefineries that exclusively use corn grain or corn starch as a feedstock to produce ethanol to be retrofitted to accept a range of biomass, including lignocellulosic feedstocks.
 So in original. No subsec. (f) has been enacted.
Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 ofPub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section
1824 of Title
2, The Congress.
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