The Secretary shall carry out a 10-year carbon capture and sequestration research, development, and demonstration program to develop carbon dioxide capture and sequestration technologies related to industrial sources of carbon dioxide for use—
(1)in new coal utilization facilities; and
(2)on the fleet of coal-based units in existence on August 8, 2005.
The objectives of the program under subsection (a) shall be—
(1)to develop carbon dioxide capture technologies, including adsorption and absorption techniques and chemical processes, to remove the carbon dioxide from gas streams containing carbon dioxide potentially amenable to sequestration;
(2)to develop technologies that would directly produce concentrated streams of carbon dioxide potentially amenable to sequestration;
(3)to increase the efficiency of the overall system to reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide emissions released from the system per megawatt generated;
(4)in accordance with the carbon dioxide capture program, to promote a robust carbon sequestration program and continue the work of the Department, in conjunction with the private sector, through regional carbon sequestration partnerships; and
(5)to expedite and carry out large-scale testing of carbon sequestration systems in a range of geologic formations that will provide information on the cost and feasibility of deployment of sequestration technologies.
(c) Programmatic activities
(1) Fundamental science and engineering research and development and demonstration supporting carbon capture and sequestration technologies and carbon use activities
(A) In general
The Secretary shall carry out fundamental science and engineering research (including laboratory-scale experiments, numeric modeling, and simulations) to develop and document the performance of new approaches to capture and sequester, or use carbon dioxide to lead to an overall reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.
(B) Program integration
The Secretary shall ensure that fundamental research carried out under this paragraph is appropriately applied to energy technology development activities, the field testing of carbon sequestration, and carbon use activities, including—
(i)development of new or advanced technologies for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide;
(ii)development of new or advanced technologies that reduce the cost and increase the efficacy of advanced compression of carbon dioxide required for the sequestration of carbon dioxide;
(iii)modeling and simulation of geologic sequestration field demonstrations;
(iv)quantitative assessment of risks relating to specific field sites for testing of sequestration technologies;
(v)research and development of new and advanced technologies for carbon use, including recycling and reuse of carbon dioxide; and
(vi)research and development of new and advanced technologies for the separation of oxygen from air.
(2) Field validation testing activities
(A) In general
The Secretary shall promote, to the maximum extent practicable, regional carbon sequestration partnerships to conduct geologic sequestration tests involving carbon dioxide injection and monitoring, mitigation, and verification operations in a variety of candidate geologic settings, including—
(i)operating oil and gas fields;
(ii)depleted oil and gas fields;
(iii)unmineable coal seams;
(iv)deep saline formations;
(v)deep geologic systems that may be used as engineered reservoirs to extract economical quantities of heat from geothermal resources of low permeability or porosity; and
(vi)deep geologic systems containing basalt formations.
The objectives of tests conducted under this paragraph shall be—
(i)to develop and validate geophysical tools, analysis, and modeling to monitor, predict, and verify carbon dioxide containment;
(ii)to validate modeling of geologic formations;
(iii)to refine sequestration capacity estimated for particular geologic formations;
(iv)to determine the fate of carbon dioxide concurrent with and following injection into geologic formations;
(v)to develop and implement best practices for operations relating to, and monitoring of, carbon dioxide injection and sequestration in geologic formations;
(vi)to assess and ensure the safety of operations related to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide;
(vii)to allow the Secretary to promulgate policies, procedures, requirements, and guidance to ensure that the objectives of this subparagraph are met in large-scale testing and deployment activities for carbon capture and sequestration that are funded by the Department of Energy; and
(viii)to provide information to States, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other appropriate entities to support development of a regulatory framework for commercial-scale sequestration operations that ensure the protection of human health and the environment.
The Secretary shall conduct not less than 7 initial large-scale sequestration tests, not including the FutureGen project, for geologic containment of carbon dioxide to collect and validate information on the cost and feasibility of commercial deployment of technologies for geologic containment of carbon dioxide. These 7 tests may include any Regional Partnership projects awarded as of December 19, 2007.
(B) Diversity of formations to be studied
In selecting formations for study under this paragraph, the Secretary shall consider a variety of geologic formations across the United States, and require characterization and modeling of candidate formations, as determined by the Secretary.
(C) Source of carbon dioxide for large-scale sequestration tests
In the process of any acquisition of carbon dioxide for sequestration tests under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall give preference to sources of carbon dioxide from industrial sources. To the extent feasible, the Secretary shall prefer tests that would facilitate the creation of an integrated system of capture, transportation and sequestration of carbon dioxide. The preference provided for under this subparagraph shall not delay the implementation of the large-scale sequestration tests under this paragraph.
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “large-scale” means the injection of more than 1,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide from industrial sources annually or a scale that demonstrates the ability to inject and sequester several million metric tons of industrial source carbon dioxide for a large number of years.
(4) Preference in project selection from meritorious proposals
In making competitive awards under this subsection, subject to the requirements of section
16353 of this title, the Secretary shall—
(A)give preference to proposals from partnerships among industrial, academic, and government entities; and
(B)require recipients to provide assurances that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors in the construction, repair, or alteration of new or existing facilities performed in order to carry out a demonstration or commercial application activity authorized under this subsection shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on similar construction in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor in accordance with subchapter IV of chapter 31 of title
40, and the Secretary of Labor shall, with respect to the labor standards in this paragraph, have the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (15 Fed. Reg. 3176; 5 U.S.C. Appendix) and section
3145 of title
(5) Cost sharing
Activities under this subsection shall be considered research and development activities that are subject to the cost sharing requirements of section
16352(b) of this title.
(6) Program review and report
During fiscal year 2011, the Secretary shall—
(A)conduct a review of programmatic activities carried out under this subsection; and
(B)make recommendations with respect to continuation of the activities.
(d) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—
2007—Pub. L. 110–140, § 702(a)(1), substituted “and sequestration research, development, and demonstration” for “research and development” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–140, § 702(a)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted “and sequestration research, development, and demonstration” for “research and development” and “capture and sequestration technologies related to industrial sources of carbon dioxide” for “capture technologies on combustion-based systems”.
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 110–140, § 702(a)(4), added subsecs. (c) and (d) and struck out former subsec. (c). Text of former subsec. (c) read as follows: “From amounts authorized under section
16291(b) of this title, the following sums are authorized for activities described in subsection (a)(2):
“(1) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;
“(2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and
“(3) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.”
Effective Date of 2007 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 ofPub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section
1824 of Title
2, The Congress.
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